Proven Lupus Treatment By Dr Gary Levin

Proven Lupus Treatment by Dr. Gary Levin

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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). See

Histiocytosis syndromes Laparotomy, staging, Hodgkin disease, 470 Lazy-leukocyte syndrome, 229-230 Lead intoxication, hematologic manifestations, 41t, 85

Learning disabilities, late effects of childhood cancer, 762 Leg ulcers, in SCD, 166-167 Leiomyoma, 83 Leiomyosarcoma, 563t and leiomyomas, in children with HIV infection, 83 Leishmaniasis, hematologic manifestations, 84 Leptospirosis, hematologic manifestations, 84 Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, 48t, 65 Leukemia, acute, 415-450 acute lymphoblastic (ALL), 416-439 bone and joint involvement, 418 cardiac involvement, 419 classification

B-cell and T-cell ontogeny, 422/ of bone marrow remission status in ALL, 427t cytochemical features of acute leukemias, 421t

Leukemia, acute (Continued)

cytochemical features of morphologic types, 420t cytogenetics and molecular characteristics, 425t frequency of specific genotypes of ALL

children, 423f future directions, 426-427 immunology, 424

immunophenotype distribution of ALL,

424-425 molecular genetics, 425 morphologic characteristics, 420t morphology, 424

nonrandom chromosomal translocations in childhood ALL, 4231, 425-426 prognostic factors, 426 proposed risk classification system, 427t clinical features, 416-419 clinical and laboratory features, 417t clinical manifestations from lymphoid system invasion, 417 clinical manifestations of extramedullary invasion, 417-418 cytochemistry, 424 diagnosis, 419 etiology, 415-416 incidence, 415

gastrointestinal involvement, 418 general systemic effects, 416 genitourinary tract involvement, 418 hematologic effects from bone marrow invasion, 416 Immunology, 424 laboratory studies, 419-420 lung involvement, 419 prognostic factors, 426 skin involvement, 419 treatment bone marrow relapse, 431, 436

Memorial Sloan-Kettering protocol for ALL in bone marrow relapse, 438t central nervous system relapse, 436 Comprehensive Cancer Network recommendations for ALL relapse, 437f general, 427-428

minimal residual disease (MRD), 429, 430t newly diagnosed ALL, 429-430 protocol for B-cell ALL and B-cell NHL, 434-435t protocol for high-risk pre-B-cell ALL, 432-433t protocol for ALL in bone marrow relapse, 438t protocol for recurrent ALL, 439t protocol for T-cell ALL, 435t schema for ALL with CNS relapse, 439t testicular relapse, 436 therapy for standard-risk pre-B-cell ALL, 430-431t acute mixed-lineage leukemia (AMLL), 449-450

acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) age incidence, 439

bone marrow criteria for diagnosis of AML

subtypes, 441t classification, 440-441 clinical features, 420t, 4211, 440 cytogenic abnormalities, 443-444t familial platelet deficiency/AML, 277 immunophenotype of AML, 441, 442t inherited disorders predisposing to AML, 440 molecular genetics, 442, 443-444t, 445/ monoclonal antibody targeted therapy for AML, 449

patients with refractory or recurrent AML, 448t prognosis, 445

reinduction protocol for relapsed AML, 449t treatment of newly diagnosed AML, 442, 445 AML-protocol, 446t DCTER regimen, 446t treatment of refractory or recurrent AML, 448, 448t, 449t acute promyelocytic leukemia (type M3) with trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) assessment of MRD, 448 management of, 448 treatment dose of ATRA, 447

leukocytosis following the use of ATRA,

447-448 side effects, 447 acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL)

subtypes, 449 in children with AIDS, 83 chronic myelogenous (See Leukemia, chronic myelogenous (CML)) congenital, 450 etiology, 415-416 features of, 212t incidence, 415

juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) (See Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML))

late effects of childhood cancer, 770-771, 772t pathogenesis, 415-416 types, 415

Leukemia, chronic myelogenous (CML), 401-411

allogenic stem cell transplantation for CML, 409,

410/, 411 biology, 404-405 blast crisis, 403

WHO criteria for diagnosis, 403t clinical phases accelerated phase, 402-403 blast phase, 403 chronic phase, 402 incidence, 401

minimal residual disease, 408 monitoring response to therapy, 408 novel therapies, 411 treatment allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 409, 410/, 411

of advanced stages, 409 of chronic phase, 405-408, 407t with IFN-a, 407-408

with IFN-a and Ara-C, 408 with imatinib mesylate, 405-407 drug interactions, 406-407 management of side effects, 406 metabolic problems, 405 Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML), 397-401 biology, 399, 400/ clinical features, 397-398 diagnostic guidelines, 398t differential diagnosis, 398-399 epidemiology, 397 incidence, 397 laboratory features, 398 molecular events, 399 natural history, 399-400 prognosis, 400 treatment, 400-401 Leukemoid reaction, features of, 212t Leukocytes (white blood cells)

alterations in, with chronic infections, 78 disorders of, 209-235 disorders of function, 226-235, 228t Chediak-Higashi syndrome, 230-231 chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), 231-233 reactions of the respiratory burst pathway, 231, 232t classification and investigations, 228t glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in leukocytes, 234 glutathione reductase deficiency, 234 glutathione synthetase deficiency, 233-234 lazy-leukocyte syndrome, 229-230 leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, 226, 229 localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), 230 neutrophil production and destruction in newborns, 234-235 syndrome of elevated immunoglobulin E, Eczema, and recurrent infection (Job syndrome), 230 normal leukocyte counts, 786t polymorphonuclear leukocytes and band count in first 2 days of life, 785t white cell values, at various ages, 786t Leukocytosis, causes, 210t Leukopenia, 209, 213

Leydig cell function, late effects of childhood cancer, late effects of childhood cancer, 766, 767t

Lhermitte Syndrome, 462 Li-Fraumeni Syndrome, 512, 565, 586, 662t Lipoprotein, venous thrombosis and, 336-337 Liposarcoma, 563t

Liver and biliary system in SCD, 164 Liver disease hematologic manifestations, 73-74 in Hodgkin disease, 463 late effects of childhood cancer, 769-770 platelet disorders and, 289 SCD, 165 Liver tumors. See Hepatoma Livido reticularis, 342 Loeffler Syndrome, 235t, 241 LPDs. See Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs)

Lungs involvement, in ALL, 419 late effects of childhood cancer, 759 in SCD, 163-164 Lupus anticoagulant antibody (LA), 340-341 Lupus erythematosus, systemic, hematologic manifestations, 77 Luteinizing-stimulating hormone deficiency, late effects of childhood cancer, 7631, 764 Lymphadenopathy, 363-367 biopsy, precautions and studies, 366 causes, 363, 365t character, 364 differential diagnosis, 364t history, 364

in Hodgkin disease, 458-459 investigations to elucidate cause, 366 location, 364

massive, with sinus histiocytosis with, 626 size, 364

Lymphocyte depletion (LD), Hodgkin disease, 456t

Lymphocyte predominance (LP), nodular,

Hodgkin disease, 455t Lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin disease, 456t Lymphocytes subsets in children and adults, 787t Lymphocytic and/or histiocytic (L&H) cells, 457 Lymphocytic infiltrates of the orbit and conjunctiva, 372 Lymphocytosis acute infectious, 84, 242

causes of, 244t atypical, causes of, 247t Lymphohistiocytosis, hemophagocytic familial, 620-623, 621t infection-associated hemophagocytic, 623-625,

6231, 624t nonfamilial, 623 Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (NHL), 491-511 Burkitt, 494-495t, 496t in children with HIV infection, 81 classification histologic classification for NHL, 494t synonyms in various classifications, 495 WHO classification for NHL, 492-493t clinical features abdomen, 493, 496 constitutional symptoms, 497 head and neck, 496 mediastinum, 496-497 other primary sites, 497 diagnosis, 497-498, 497t epidemiology, 491-492, 496t incidence, 491 prognosis, 508-509t staging, 498, 498t treatment complications in children with NHL, 499 gastrointestinal complications, 499-500 intrathoracic lesions, 499 pericardial effusion, 499 relapse, 509

BEAM regimen for stem cell transplantation in NHL, 510t

Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (NHL) (Continued) CBV regimen for stem cell transplantation in

NHL, 510t relapsed ALCL, 510t relapsed NHL, 510t tumor lysis syndrome, 696t, 697-700 prognosis, 509t radiation therapy, 508 surgical therapy, 508 treatment categories advanced-stage BL, BLL, and DLCL including B-cell ALL and B-cell NHL, 503-504,

505-506t intermediate-risk BL, BLL, and DLCL, 503, 504t

Ki-1+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma,

localized BL, BLL, and DLCL, 502-503 localized lymphoblastic lymphoma, 500-5011, 502, 502/

stage III and IV lymphoblastic NHL, 502 Lymphomas, central nervous system, in children with HIV infection, 81-82 Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) in children,

387-388, 389t Lymphopenia, causes of, 244t Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), 371-388 angiocentric immunolymphoproliferative disorders, 372-373 angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (AILD), 371-372, 382t autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)(Canale-Smith syndrome) characteristics, 384 Dianzani ALP disease, 387 hematologic findings, 384-385 immunologic findings, 385 mechanism of autoimmunity, 386 origin of a/P-DNT cells, 386 pathophysiology, 385-386 prognosis, 387 treatment, 386-387 Castleman disease, 373-374

histologic types and clinical features, 374t Epstein-Barr virus-associated LPD, 375-376 cellular responses in control of EBV infection, 375-376

EBV antigens associated with the lytic cycle, 375

functions of EBV latent antigens, 375 patterns of EBV gene expression, 376/ immunodeficiencies associated with development of LPDs, 376-377 lymphocytic infiltrates of the orbit and conjunctiva, 372 lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) in children,

387-388, 3891 post-transplant LPDs characteristics in post-solid organ transplantation and post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, 380t classification of, 378t common sites of involvement in B-cell PTLDs, 379t diagnosis of, 377-378 treatment of B-cell LPD in immunosuppressed patients, 379, 381-382 chemotherapy, 379, 382t WHO classification of, 378t X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome clinical manifestations, 383 diagnostic criteria for, 384t pathophysiology, 382-383 prognosis, 384 treatment, 383-384

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