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4. The immune response also generates CD4+ Th1 and CD4+ Th2 cells. Th1 cells make IL-2, IFN-y, and TNF, which induce proliferation of T cells (induced by IL-2) and apoptosis of CML cells (induced by IFN-y and TNF). BCR/ABL-specific Th1 cells exist in circulating blood, but they do not recognize the CML cells, indicating involvement of antigens other than BCR/ABL in a GVL effect induced by Th1 cells. In this regard, Th1 cells exhibit leukemia-specific cyto-toxicity through tissue-restricted antigens. Th2 cells make IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 and are implicated in humoral responses.

5. FAS ligand, expressed on cytotoxic T cells (Th1 and CD8+ T cells), binds to FAS receptor on CML 34+ stem cells and induces apoptosis of CML cells.

6. Additionally, cytotoxic T cells make perforin, which perforates the CML cells, and then they release granzyme into the CML cells, which induces cell death.

The results of allogeneic HSCT are listed below:

Cohort characteristics

Donor

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