• Chronic infection is associated with the anemia of chronic illness.

• Acute infection, particularly viral infection, can produce transient bone marrow aplasia or selective transient erythrocytopenia.

• Parvovirus B19 infection in people with an underlying hemolytic disorder (such as sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis) can produce a rapid fall in hemoglobin and an erythroblastopenic crisis marked by anemia and reticulocytope-nia. There may be an associated neutropenia.

• Many viral and bacterial illnesses may be associated with hemolysis.

White Cell Alterations

• Viral infections can produce leukopenia and neutropenia. Neutrophilia with an increased band count and left shift frequently results from bacterial infection.

• Neonates, particularly premature infants, may not develop an increase in white cell count in response to infection.

• Eosinophilia may develop in response to parasitic infections.

Clotting Abnormalities

Severe infections, for example, gram-negative sepsis, can produce DIC. Thrombocytopenia

Infection can produce thrombocytopenia through decreased marrow production, immune destruction, or DIC.

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