• Chronic infection is associated with the anemia of chronic illness.
• Acute infection, particularly viral infection, can produce transient bone marrow aplasia or selective transient erythrocytopenia.
• Parvovirus B19 infection in people with an underlying hemolytic disorder (such as sickle cell disease, hereditary spherocytosis) can produce a rapid fall in hemoglobin and an erythroblastopenic crisis marked by anemia and reticulocytope-nia. There may be an associated neutropenia.
• Many viral and bacterial illnesses may be associated with hemolysis.
• Viral infections can produce leukopenia and neutropenia. Neutrophilia with an increased band count and left shift frequently results from bacterial infection.
• Neonates, particularly premature infants, may not develop an increase in white cell count in response to infection.
• Eosinophilia may develop in response to parasitic infections.
Severe infections, for example, gram-negative sepsis, can produce DIC. Thrombocytopenia
Infection can produce thrombocytopenia through decreased marrow production, immune destruction, or DIC.
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