Blood loss Iatrogenic (sampling) Fetomaternal/fetoplacental Cord problems Twin to twin Internal hemorrhage
Infection, e.g., HIV
Hereditary spherocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis Hereditary stomatocytosis Infantile pyknocytosis Pyruvate kinase deficiency G6PD deficiency Disseminated intravascular coagulation Vitamin E deficiency
Fig. 2-4. Approach to the diagnosis of anemia in the newborn.
Table 2-6. Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia in the Newborn
Obstetrical history Family history
Complete blood count Reticulocyte count Blood smear
Coombs' test (direct and indirect) Blood type of baby and mother Bilirubin level
Kleihauen-Betke test on mother's blood (fetal red cells in maternal blood)
Studies for neonatal infection
Ultrasound of abdomen and head
Red cell enzyme assays (if clinically indicated)
Bone marrow (if clinically indicated)
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