Table 11-3 lists the hemostatic values in healthy preterm and term infants. Plasma Factors
In comparison with hemostatic mechanisms in older children and adults, that of the newborn infants is not uniformly developed. In newborns plasminogen levels are only 50% of adult values and a2AP levels are 80% of adult values, whereas PAI-1 and t-PA levels are significantly increased over adult values. The increased plasma levels of t-PA and PAI-1 in newborns on day 1 of life are in marked contrast to values from cord blood, in which concentrations of these two proteins are significantly lower than in adults. Newborns also have decreased activity of anticoagulant factors, especially antithrombin, protein C, and protein S. In addition the following other physiologic differences are present in normal newborn infants:
Capillary fragility is increased. Prostacyclin production is increased.
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