The etiology of hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma is unknown. Certain disorders increase the risk of liver cancer (see Table 24-13). Certain congenital anomalies have been reported with hepatoblastoma:

• Hemihypertrophy

• Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

• Meckel's diverticulum

• Congenital absence of adrenal gland

• Congenital absence of kidney

• Congenital absence of adrenal gland

• Umbilical hernia.

Hepatomas have a wide geographic variation in incidence:

1. It is the third most common abdominal cancer in Japan.

2. It is seen more frequently in Asian and African children.

The geographic variation is thought to reflect the etiologic role of environmental conditions.

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