Biological Tumor Markers

Tumor marker

Diagnostic significance

Normal values

Oncofetal proteins a-fetoprotein in serum

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum

Hormones

Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) in serum Catecholamines urinary

VMA/HVA Plasma and urinary cate-cholamines and urinary metanephrine and VMA Testosterone serum

Estrogen serum

Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and estrogen serum

Thyrocalcitonin serum T3 , T4 serum

Parathormone serum

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) Renin serum

Hepatoblastoma Hepatocellular carcinoma Endodermal sinus tumor Embryonal carcinoma Pancreatoblastoma Adenocarcinoma of colon

Choriocarcinoma Hepatoblastoma

Neuroblastoma

Pheochromocytoma

Leydig cell tumor (testis) Sertoli-Leydig cell (ovary) Granulosa cell tumor (ovary) Sertoli cell tumor (testis) Adrenal hyperplasia Adrenal adenoma Adrenal carcinoma Ectopic adrenal rests (liver, testis, ovary) Medullary (C-cell) thyroid carcinoma Hyperthyroidism Thyroid adenoma Thyroid carcinoma Parathyroid hyperplasia Parathyroid adenoma Parathyroid carcinoma Hepatoblastoma Neuroblastoma Vipoma Wilms' tumor

Table 24-4, average normal serum a-fetoprotein of infants at various ages

5 mlU/mL

Appendix 1

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