1. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. Data tables: results from USDA's 1995 continuing survey: CSFI/DHKS 1995. Riverdale, Md.: Food Surveys Research Group, 1995 (CD-ROM).
2. Johansson L, Drevon CA, Bjorneboe GEA. The Norwegian diet during the last hundred years in relation to coronary heart disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996; 50: 277—283.
3. Fogelholm M, Mannisto S, Vartiainen E, Pietinen P. Determinants of energy balance and overweight in Finland 1982 and 1992. Int J Obes 1996; 20:1097—1104.
4. Osler M, Heitmann BL. Food patterns associated with intakes of fat, carbohydrate and dietary fibre in a cohort of Danish adults followed for six years. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997; 51:354—361.
5. Journal of Agricultural Economics (ed. Lofdahl E) 1996; 58: 303—305.
6. Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen. Danskernes kostvaner 1995 — Hove-dresultater. Dept of Health, 1996: 235.
7. Katan MB, Grundy SM, Willett WC. Beyond low fat diets. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 563—566.
8. Seidell JS, Rissanen AM. Time trends in the worldwide prevalence of obesity. In: Bray GA, Bouchard C, James WPT (eds) Handbook of Obesity. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1998: 79—91.
9. WHO. Obesity-preventing and managing the global epi demic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva, 3—5 June 1997. WHO publications: Geneva, 1997.
10. Americans eat less fat, more calories. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. CDC, 1994.
11. Prentice AM, Jebb SA. Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? BMJ 1995; 311: 437—439.
12. Rolls BJ, Miller DL. Is the low-fat message giving people a license to eat more? J Am Coll Nutr 1997; 16: 535—543.
13. Black AE, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA et al. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology. 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991; 45: 583—599.
14. Heitmann BL. The influence of fatness, weight change, slimming history and other lifestyle variables on diet reporting in Danish men and women aged 35—65 years. Int J Obes 1993; 17: 329—336.
15. Heitmann BL, Lissner L. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals—is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 1995; 311: 986—989.
16. Lissner L, Heitmann BL, Lindroos AK. Measuring intake in free-living human subjects: a question of bias. Proc Nutr Soc 1998; 57: 1—8.
17. Price GM, Paul AA, Cole TJ. Nonresponders in a prospective national survey in the United Kingdom. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65(suppl): 1341S—1342S.
18. Lissner L, Heitmann BL. Dietary fat and obesity: evidence from epidemiology. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995; 49: 79—90.
19. Astrup A, Raben A. Obesity: an inherited metabolic deficiency in the control of macronutrient balance? Eur J Clin Nutr 1992; 46:611—620.
20. Lissner L, Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ, Kalfwarf HJ, Roe DA. Dietary fat and the regulation of energy intake in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1987; 46: 886—892.
21. Kendall A, Levitsky DA, Strupp BJ, Lissner L. Weight loss on a low-fat diet: consequence of the imprecision of the control of food intake in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 1124—1129.
22. Tremblay A, Lavallee N, A^meras N, Allard L, Despres J, Bouchard C. Nutritional determinants of the increase in energy intake associated with a high-fat diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 1134—1137.
23. Toubro S, Astrup A. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subject's weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake. BMJ 1997; 314: 29—34.
24. Lissner L, Heitmann BL, Bengtsson C. Low-fat diets may prevent weight gain in sedentary women: prospective observations from the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Obes Res 1997; 5: 43—48.
25. Blundell JE, Burley VJ, Cotton JR, Lawton CL. Dietary fat and the control of energy intake: evaluating the effects of fat on meal size and postmeal satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 1993; 57: 7772—7778.
26. van Amelsvoort JMM, van Stratum P, Kraal JH, Lussen-burg RN, Houtsmuller UMT. Effects of varying the carbohydrate: fat ratio in a hot lunch on postprandial variables in male volunteers. Br J Nutr 1989; 61: 267—283.
27. Oscai LB, Brown MM, Miller WC. Effect on dietary fat on food intake, growth and body composition in rats. Growth 1984; 48: 415—424.
28. Flatt JP. The difference in the storage capacities for carbohy-
drate and for fat, and its implications in the regulation of body weight. Ann NY Acad Sci 1987; 499: 104-123.
29. Lean MEJ, James PT. Metabolic effects of isoenergetic nutrient exchange over 24 years in relation to obesity in women. Int J Obes 1988; 12: 15-27.
30. Lissner L, Heitmann BL. The dietary fat: carbohydrate ratio in relation to body weight. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1995; 6: 8-13.
31. Allred JB. Too much of a good thing? J Am Diet Assoc 1995; 95: 417-418.
32. Klesges RC, Klesges LM, Haddock CK, Eck LH. A longitudinal analysis of the impact of dietary intake and physical activity on weight change in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: 818-822.
33. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, London SJ, Segal MR, Speizer FE. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 1100-1105.
34. Kant AK, Graubard BI, Schatzkin A, Ballard-barbash R. Proportion of energy intake from fat and subsequent weight change in the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61: 11-17.
35. Rissanen AM, Heliovaara M, Knekt P, Reunanen A, Aromaa A. Determinants of weight gain and overweight in adult Finns. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991; 45: 419-430.
36. Pudel V, Westenhoefer J. Dietary and behavioural principles in the treatment of obesity. International Monitor on Eating Patterns and Weight Control (Medicom/Servieer) 1992; 1: 2-7.
37. Heitmann BL, Lissner L. Sorensen TIA, Bengtsson C. Dietary fat intake and weight gain in women genetically predisposed for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 61:1213-1217.
38. Katan MB. High-oil compared with low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets in the prevention of ischemic heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 66(Suppl): 974S-979S.
39. van Stratum P, Lussenburg RN, van Wezel LA, Vergroesen AJ, Cremer HD. The effect of dietary carbohydrate: fat ratio on energy intake by adult women. Am J Clin Nutr 1978; 31: 206-212.
40. Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM. Covert manipulation of dietary fat and energy density: effect on substrate flux and food intake in men eating ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62: 316-329.
41. Stubbs RJ, Ritz P, Coward WA, Prentice AM. Covert manipulation of the ratio of dietary fat to carbohydrate and energy density: effect on food intake and energy balance in free living men, eating ad libitum. Am J Clin Nutr 1995: 62: 330-337.
42. Ramirez I, Friedman MI. Dietary hyperphagia in rats: role of fat, carbohydrate and energy content. Physiol Behav 1990; 47: 1157-1163.
43. Westerterp KR, Verboeket-van de Venne, WPHG, Wester-terp-Plantenga MS, Velthuis-te Wierik EJM, de Graaf C, Weststrate JA. Dietary fat and body fat: an intervention study. Int J Obes 1996; 20: 1022-1026.
44. Duncan KH, Bacon JA, Weinsier RL. The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1983; 37: 763-767.
45. Poppit SD, Prentice AM. Energy density and its role in the control of food intake: evidence from metabolic and community studies. Appetite 1996; 26: 153-174.
46. Bouchard C (ed) The Genetics of Obesity. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1994.
47. Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Despres JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Theriault G, Dussault J, Moorjani S, Pinault S, Fournier G. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med 1990; 322:1477-1482.
48. Price RA, Ness R, Sorensen TIA. Change in commingled body mass index distributions associated with secular trends in overweight among Danish young men. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 133: 501-510.
49. Price RA, Stunkard AJ. Commingling analysis of obesity in twins. Hum Hered 1989; 39:121-135.
50. West D, Boozer CN, Moody DL, Atkinson R. Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains. Am J Physiol 1992; 262: R1025-1032.
51. Astrup A. Dietary composition, substrate balances and body fat in subjects with a predisposition to obesity. Int J Obes 1993; 17(Suppl): S-32-36.
52. Sclefani A, Assimon SA. Influence of diet type and maternal background on dietary-obesity in the rat: A preliminary study. Nutr Behav 1985; 2: 139-147.
53. Jorgensen LM, Sorensen TIA, Schroll M, Larsen S. Influence of dietary factors on weight change assessed by multi-variate graphical models. Int J Obes 1995; 19: 909-915.
54. Lindroos AK, Lissner L, Carlsson B, Carlsson L, Torgersson J, Karlsson C, Stenlof K, Sjöström, L. Familial predisposition for obesity may modify the predictive value of serum leptin concentrations for long-term weight change in obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 67:1119-1123.
55. Fleury C, Neverova M, Collins S, Raimbault S, Champigny O, LeviMeyreuis C, Bouillaud F, Seldin MF, Surwitt RS, Ricquier D, Warden CH. Uncoupling protein-2: a novel gene linked to obesity and hyperinsulinemia. Nat Gen 1997; 15: 269-272.
56. Rolls BJ, Pirraglia PA, Jones MB, Peters JC. Effects of olestra, a noncaloric fat substitute, on daily energy and fat intakes in lean men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56: 84-92.
57. Drewnowski A, Kurth C, Holden-Wiltse J, Saari J. Food preferences in human obesity: carbohydrates versus fats. Appetite 1992; 18: 207-221.
58. Mela DJ, Sacchetti DA. Sensory preferences for fats: relationships with diet and body composition. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53: 908-915.
59. Rolls BJ, Kim-Harris S, Fischman MW, Foltin RW, Moran TH, Stoner SA. Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 476-487.
60. Reed DR, Bachmanov AA, Beauchamp GK, Tordoff MG, Price RA. Heritable variation in food preferences and their contribution to obesity. Behav Genet 1997; 27: 373-884.
61. Smith BK, West DB, York DA. Carbohydrate vs fat preference: evidence of differing patterns of macronutrient selection in two inbred mouse strains. Obes Res 1995; 3(Suppl 3): 411s-411s.
62. Heitmann BL. Social desirability bias in dietary self-report may compromise the validity of dietary intake measures. Implications for diet disease relationships. Int J Epidemiol 1996; 25: 222-223.
International Textbook of Obesity. Edited by Per Bjorntorp.
Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Print ISBNs: 0-471-988707 (Hardback); 0-470-846739 (Electronic)
Was this article helpful?
Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At The Psychology Of Weight Loss And Management. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Exploring How Your Brain Plays A Role In Weight Loss And Management.