Umea University, Umea, Sweden
An epidemic of obesity and type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes is in progress across the world. The global burden of diabetes has been projected to rise, with an increase in the total number of people with type 2 diabetes from about 120 million in 1997 to about 215 million in 2010 (1). The obvious remedy for this development is to combat overweight and obesity, and to counteract the sedentary lifestyle of modern society. The basis for these actions must be a population strategy of prevention. However, an equally important mission, not least from an ethical standpoint, is to find and engage those individuals that are in most need of help (high-risk strategy). The screening procedure is used to identify these high-risk individuals. Screening in this chapter refers to prescriptive screening, whose aim is to use early detection and early treatment to control the outcome of the disease. In epidemiologi-cal surveys, the principal aim of the screening is to explore the prevalence and natural history of the variable in question and not to bring patients to treatment.
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