Ways To Improve Your Body Image

Mirror Madness

Mirror Madness

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Promoting an Optimal Response to Therapy

The lesions caused by the fungal infections may cause the patient to feel negatively about the body or a body part. It is important for the nurse to develop a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship that conveys an attitude of caring and develops a sense of trust. The nurse listens to the patient's concerns and assists the patient in accepting the situation as temporary. The nurse encourages the patient to verbalize any feelings or anxiety about the effect of the disorder on body image. The nurse explains the disorder and the treatment regimen in terms the patient can understand and discusses the need at times for long-term treatment to eradicate the infection.

Scintigraphic Imaging Methodology

The standard by which all the regions can be compared is obtained by drawing a large box, if possible, over the whole body image of the animal on the first image acquired immediately after the radiolabeled liposomes have been infused. This provides an estimation of the total detectable counts in the injected dose.

Back From The Future Technique

In this method, hypnotic age progression techniques are utilized as described by Yapko (1984, 1986), Erickson (1985), Frederick and Phillips (1992), and Torem (1992). Here, a discussion is held with a patient about a desired future image the patient would be interested in as representing her full recovery and reaching an ideal stage regarding personal goals, as well as body image and a state of healthy living. This is particularly important with a developing adolescent patient who is in the process of change and is generally struggling with the question of 'Who shall I become ' The patient is guided into a state of self-hypnotic trance and suggestions are structured as with the following example

Assessment Of Effectiveness

Body image The patient's body image should move from a distortion to a realistic assessment and perception of the patient's body image. This can be evaluated by the use of the Mental Status Examination (MSE), as well as the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), and the Draw a Person Test (DAP).

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

As the popularity of aesthetic surgery increases, one is reminded of the fairy tale that asks the question Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of them all The number of patients finding comfort and solace in repetitive elective surgical procedures is growing. Beyond the unrealistic expectations of aesthetic correction, many patients are seeking surgery when the need for it is dubious at best. The physical change sought through surgery usually is more a manifestation of flawed body image than a measurable deviation from physical normality. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) represents a pathological preoccupation by the patient about a physical trait that may be within normal limits or so insignificant as to be hardly noticeable. However, to the patient it has become a consuming obsession.

Laparoscopic Subtotal or Total Colectomy or Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis

Experience has shown favorable results in patients undergoing urgent laparoscopic colectomy for acute ulcerative colitis 64-66 followed by delayed ileo-proctostomy or proctectomy and ileo pouch construction. However, the significant clinical advantages of a laparoscopic-assisted procedure remain to be determined. When compared with open colecto-my, laparoscopic colectomy has been shown to be associated with improved postoperative pulmonary function, quicker return of bowel function, less postoperative pain, decreased postoperative length of hospital stay, positive body image and less small-bowel obstruction due to postoperative adhesions. Patients on immunosuppressive therapy are also exposed to minor risk of wound infections, incisional hernia and intra-abdominal abscesses. The main disadvantages of laparoscopic operation are steeper learning curve, longer operative time and increasing operative-room costs 67-70 . Toxic megacolon is usually excluded from laparoscopic procedure...

Susan E Frates MS RD and Heidi Schauster MS RD

Eating disorders are characterized by a disturbed relationship between nutritional intake and body image, often leading to subsequent medical problems. While eating disorders are found predominantly in the adolescent and young adult populations, they are increasingly being recognized in children and preadolescents. Eating disorders are the third most common chronic illness in adolescents following obesity and asthma.1 Anorexia nervosa is estimated to occur in < 3 of adolescent women and bulimia nervosa in 1 to 49r.- Undiagnosed disordered eating appears to afflict many school-aged Americans. In 1995. over one-third of Boston high school students reported that they were trying to lose weight. Six to seven percent of these students reported having vomited or taken laxatives in the last 30 days to avoid absorbing calories.-1 Males are also currently emerging as a population at risk for disordered eating. The age of onset of eating disorders appears to be decreasing. and assembly of a...

Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

Anorexia nervosa, which results from a distorted body image, an obsessive fear of obesity, and avoidance of food, can be associated with severe, even fatal, weight loss. For unknown reasons, this disorder is much more common in girls than in boys. The boys' functional hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at least partly results from severe weight loss. The underlying pathophysiology of delayed puberty is GnRH deficiency, because the LH secretory pattern in adolescents with anorexia is similar to that of normal prepuberty low or absent LH pulses and a blunted LH response to stimulation by exogenous GnRH (56). Pulsatile administration of GnRH restores a pubertal pattern of LH secretion, confirming the hypothalamic location of the defect. The mechanism for GnRH deficiency may relate to the effects of stress (57). Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) levels increase in stress, and CRF, in turn, stimulates P-endorphin levels, which then directly inhibit GnRH release. Recovery to...

Restorative Proctocolectomy Ileo Pouch Anal Anastomosis IPAA

The interest in IRA may well have declined with the advent of proctocolectomy and the ileo pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). IPAA or restorative procto-colectomy, i.e. construction of a reservoir of distal ileum and an ileo pouch-anal anastomosis is the current most popular option for surgical treatment of ulcerative proctocolitis. There is no stoma or need for an external bag and the normal route of defecation is preserved, i.e. a normal body image. It has

Other Lifestyle Dietary Factors Affecting the Adult Male

Cryptorchidism Human Males

Although Western men are generally less physically active today than they were 30 or so years ago, for those who do participate in sports, they are far more competitive today, and this has led to use of performance-enhancing drugs, the most common being anabolic androgenic steroids (89-91). Outside of sports, the same drugs are used for improving physique and body image (see Chapter 16). New male contraceptive approaches also rely on systemic androgen administration (usually in combination with a progestogen) and, depending on the dose administered, it is well established that this will suppress production of endogenous testosterone and, hence, interfere with sperm production (92). Similarly, individuals who use anabolic steroids are clearly at risk of hypogonadism (90,93-95), but this is dependent on factors such as type of steroid, dose administered, and, perhaps, administration duration (96). It is not clear how prevalent such hypogonadism may be, because much of the anabolic...

Introduction And Literature Review

Numerous publications have pointed out the usefulness of hypnosis in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Vanderlinden and Vandereycken (1988, 1990) provide a comprehensive and excellent review of the literature on the use of hypnosis with eating disorders. Janet (1907, 1919) described how by using hypnotic techniques he was able to change the patients' dissociative, fixed ideas about eating and their body image, and to promote a general mental synthesis. Janet also used cognitive restructuring techniques that were successfully augmented by hypnosis. The hypothesis that many patients with eating disorders may suffer from dissociative episodes, has been supported by the research of Pettinati, Horne and Staats (1982, 1985), as well as by Council (1986) and Torem (1986a, 1990). These studies

Sexual Dysfunction Related to the Disease

Sexual desire may be reduced by generalised debility or by the presence of perianal or cutaneous fistulas which alter the acceptance of his her own body image and thus make the patient uncomfortable and embarrassed with his or her partner. More often, the constant presence of symptoms like abdominal pain and diarrhoea are the cause of reduced relational and sexual activity 9 .

The Integrative Period The Acceptance Of Hypnosis And The Integration Of Technique And Theory

Brown & Fromm (1986) also presented specific hypnotic techniques for treating psychotic and borderline patients. Their techniques were based on developmental theory and were intended to promote the formation of boundaries and body image, the development of object and self-representations, and the development of affect (Brown, 1985 Brown & Fromm, 1986).

Prevention Of Postcessation Weight Gain

Modest and does not predict success at quitting, Perkins (74) has suggested treating weight concerns rather than weight gain per se, as a potentially useful intervention. Perkins and colleagues are testing this hypothesis in an ongoing clinical trial, where a cognitive-behavioral intervention is used to challenge attitudes and perceptions regarding weight and body image. The goals of the intervention are to tolerate a modest increase in snacking and not to overreact emotionally to a modest weight increase.


The major detrimental effects of the undescended testis are an increased risk of infertility and malignancy. Although concerns that detrimental psychological effects relating to body image may occur as a consequence of lack of testes in the scrotum have been raised (7), a study that focused on gender identity development and sexual behavior identified no problems (8). When given the choice, most young men choose to have two scrotal testes, even if one or both are synthetic, whereas older men often decline this option.

Research On Hypnosis

The literature on obesity has been swamped in recent years with very pessimistic and negative treatment results, especially regarding the long-term outcome of treatment (Garner & Wooley, 1991). Unlike the situation with anorexia nervosa and bulimia, hypnotherapists have been intensively engaged in the treatment of obesity (see Vanderlinden & Vandereycken, 1988). Many success stories have been reported in the hypnotherapeutic literature, but these are often reports on a very small number of patients. In addition, they deal with short-term treatment results, and long-term follow-up data are almost completely lacking (Mott & Roberts, 1979 Wadden & Anderton, 1982). Apart from this, most researchers use only one criterion for evaluation, namely weight reduction, while alterations in psychological characteristics such as body image, self-esteem and other criteria are totally

In Vivo Imaging

Mammary Fat Pad Injection Mice

As shown in Figure 8.28, murine melanoma metastases in the mouse brain was imaged, in real time, using GFP expression (Yang et al., 2000). These experiments with the B16F0 melanoma utilized the tumor cells that were labeled by external GFP transduction and injected into the tail vein or portal vein of nude mice. The whole-body image as well as those of specific organs (such as the liver and skeleton) were obtained by using fluorescence (e.g., epifluorescence) microscopy. The size of the metastasis and micrometastasis determined the depth to which they could be imaged. Thus, a 60- mm tumor could be detected to a depth of 0.5 mm, while a 1.8-mm tumor could be imaged at even a larger depth of 2.2 mm. Using the same technique, even whole-body images can be acquired non-invasively and tumorous and actively proliferating tissue sections can be identified, as shown in Figure 8.31. Time progression image studies showed that breast tumors were undetectable before and immediately after the...

Visual Seizures

Visual illusions include macropsia, micropsia, metamorphopsia, and pallinopsia. Patients with macropsia perceive an object bigger than its actual size. Patients with micropsia perceive an object smaller than the actual size. Metamorphopsia presents as distortions of form, size, or color. Pallinopsia is a visual preservation of an image long after the cessation of the visual stimulus (101). Visual illusions are thought to orginate in the visual association cortex, therefore the tem-poroparietal junction may also be involved. Distortions of body image have been described with parietal lobe seizure onset (47) however, this most likely is a disturbance of self perception rather than a visual illusion.