Hydrogen is the most numerous atom in the body, and water is the most numerous molecule. Out of every 100 molecules, 99 are water. The covalent bonds linking the two hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom in a water molecule are polar. Therefore, the oxygen in water has a slight negative charge, and each hydrogen has a slight positive charge. The positively polarized regions near the hydrogen atoms of one water molecule are electrically attracted to the negatively polarized regions of the oxygen atoms in adjacent water molecules by hydrogen bonds (Figure 2-4).

At body temperature, water exists as a liquid because the weak hydrogen bonds between water molecules are continuously being formed and broken. If the temperature is increased, the hydrogen bonds are

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

PART ONE Basic Cell Functions

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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