The Internal Environment and Homeostasis

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An amoeba and a human liver cell both obtain their energy by breaking down certain organic nutrients. The chemical reactions involved in this intracellular process are remarkably similar in the two types of cells and involve the utilization of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide. The amoeba picks up oxygen directly from the fluid surrounding it (its external environment) and eliminates carbon dioxide into the same fluid. But how can the liver cell and all other internal parts of the body obtain oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide when, unlike the amoeba, they are not in direct contact with the external environment—the air surrounding the body?

Figure 1-2 summarizes the exchanges of matter that occur in a person. Supplying oxygen is the function both of the respiratory system, which takes up oxygen from the external environment, and of the circulatory system, which distributes the oxygen to all parts of the body. In addition, the circulatory system carries the carbon dioxide generated by all the cells of the body to the lungs, which eliminate it to the exterior. Similarly, the digestive and circulatory systems working together make nutrients from the external environment available to all the body's cells. Wastes other than carbon dioxide are carried by the circulatory system from the cells that produced them to the kidneys and liver, which excrete them from the body. The kidneys also regulate the amounts of water and many essential minerals in the body. The nervous and hormonal systems coordinate and control the activities of all the other organ systems.

Thus the overall effect of the activities of organ systems is to create within the body an environment in

CHAPTER ONE A Framework for Human Physiology

Vander et al.: Human I. Basic Cell Functions

Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

CHAPTER ONE A Framework for Human Physiology

System

Major Organs or Tissues

Primary Functions

Circulatory

Heart, blood vessels, blood (Some classifications also include lymphatic vessels and lymph in this system.)

Transport of blood throughout the body's tissues

Respiratory

Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hydrogen-ion concentration

Digestive

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Digestion and absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water

Urinary

Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

Regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of salts, water, and organic wastes

Musculoskeletal

Cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle

Support, protection, and movement of the body; production of blood cells

Immune

White blood cells, lymph vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus, and other lymphoid tissues

Defense against foreign invaders; return of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells

Nervous

Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and ganglia, special sense organs

Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body; detection of changes in the internal and external environments; states of consciousness; learning; cognition

Endocrine

All glands secreting hormones: Pancreas, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus, kidneys, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, intestinal, thymus, heart, and pineal, and endocrine cells in other locations

Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body

Reproductive

Male: Testes, penis, and associated ducts and glands

Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female

Production of eggs; provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus; nutrition of the infant

Integumentary

Skin

Protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature

which all cells can survive and function. This fluid environment surrounding each cell is called the internal environment. The internal environment is not merely a theoretical physiological concept. It can be identified quite specifically in anatomical terms. The body's internal environment is the extracellular fluid (literally, fluid outside the cells), which bathes each cell.

In other words, the environment in which each cell lives is not the external environment surrounding the entire body but the local extracellular fluid surrounding that cell. It is from this fluid that the cells receive oxygen and nutrients and into which they excrete wastes. A multicellular organism can survive only as long as it is able to maintain the composition of its internal environment in a state compatible with the sur vival of its individual cells. In 1857, Claude Bernard clearly described the central importance of the extracellular fluid: "It is the fixity of the internal environment that is the condition of free and independent life. . . . All the vital mechanisms, however varied they may be, have only one object, that of preserving constant the conditions of life in the internal environment."

The relative constancy of the internal environment is known as homeostasis. Changes do occur, but the magnitudes of these changes are small and are kept within narrow limits. As emphasized by the twentieth-century American physiologist, Walter B. Cannon, such stability can be achieved only through the operation of carefully coordinated physiological processes. The activities of the cells, tissues, and organs must be

Vander et al.: Human I I. Basic Cell Functions I 1. A Framework for Human I I © The McGraw-Hill

Physiology: The Physiology Companies, 2001

Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

A Framework for Human Physiology CHAPTER ONE

Nutrients

Salts

Water out

O2 in

Nutrients

Salts

Water

Extracellular Fluid Plasma

Unabsorbed matter

Organic waste

Salts

Water

External environment

FIGURE 1-2

Exchanges of matter occur between the external environment and the circulatory system via the digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems. Extracellular fluid (plasma and interstitial fluid) is the internal environment of the body. The external environment is the air surrounding the body.

Unabsorbed matter

Organic waste

Salts

Water

External environment

FIGURE 1-2

Exchanges of matter occur between the external environment and the circulatory system via the digestive, respiratory, and urinary systems. Extracellular fluid (plasma and interstitial fluid) is the internal environment of the body. The external environment is the air surrounding the body.

regulated and integrated with each other in such a way that any change in the extracellular fluid initiates a reaction to minimize the change.

A collection of body components that functions to keep a physical or chemical property of the internal environment relatively constant is termed a homeo-static control system. As will be described in detail in Chapter 7, such a system must detect changes in the magnitude of the property, relay this information to an appropriate site for integration with other incoming information, and elicit a "command" to particular cells to alter their rates of function in such a way as to restore the property toward its original value.

The description at the beginning of this chapter of how sweating is brought about in response to increased heat generation during exercise is an example of a homeostatic control system in operation; the sweating (more precisely, the evaporation of the sweat) removes heat from the body and keeps the body temperature relatively constant even though more heat is being produced by the exercising muscles.

Here is another example: A mountaineer who ascends to high altitude suffers a decrease in the concentration of oxygen in his or her blood because of the decrease in the amount of oxygen in inspired air; the nervous system detects this change in the blood and increases its signals to the skeletal muscles responsible for breathing. The result is that the mountaineer breathes more rapidly and deeply, and the increase in the amount of air inspired helps keep the blood oxy gen concentration from falling as much as it otherwise would.

We emphasized at the beginning of this chapter the intimate relationship between physiology and medicine. Another way of putting it is that physicians, for the most part, diagnose and treat disease-induced disruptions of homeostasis.

To summarize, the activities of every individual cell in the body fall into two categories: (1) Each cell performs for itself all those fundamental basic cellular processes—movement of materials across its membrane, extraction of energy, protein synthesis, and so on—that represent the minimal requirements for maintaining its own individual integrity and life; and (2) each cell simultaneously performs one or more specialized activities that, in concert with the activities performed by the other cells of its tissue or organ system, contribute to the survival of the body by maintaining the stable internal environment required by all cells.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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  • Dahlak
    Why is interstitial fluid called the internal environment of the body?
    8 years ago
  • robert
    What organ systems are associated with exchanges in the external and internal environment ?
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  • Manuela
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  • bruno graham
    What is interstitial fluid why it is called internal inviornment of body?
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  • samuel
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  • habte
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  • Brenda Anderson
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  • Bildat
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  • manlio dellucci
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  • amaranto
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  • Genet Mebrahtu
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  • keir
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    7 years ago
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    7 years ago
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  • ROBERT
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  • negisti
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    6 years ago
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  • tom
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    5 years ago
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  • Kane
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  • THOMAS
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  • Wilma
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  • norbert
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  • tricia
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  • Carla
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  • aila black
    How is concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide mantained constant in internal environment?
    3 years ago
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  • pandora took-brandybuck
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  • kati
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  • Hamilcar
    What regulation of internal environment (liver and kidney)?
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  • arduino
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  • sabine
    Is the internal environment made up of lymph?
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  • Helj
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  • phillipp richter
    Which body fluid forms the internal environment?
    3 years ago
  • Elina
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  • Klaudia Baumgaertner
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  • SUSANNA
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  • brayden
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  • louie
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  • Melanie
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  • Alastair
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  • Jan
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  • andrew
    Which one cell are not contact with external environment?
    3 years ago
  • ALEXANDER
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  • ermias
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  • BOWMAN
    Which organs are part of the internal environment?
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  • charlotte
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  • lucie
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    How the blood forms internal environment of cell?
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    Why the extra cellular fluid is called the internal environment of the body definition in Guyton?
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  • Tarja
    What is the body's internal environment in which the fluid surrounds cells?
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    What are the internal environment of cells and tissue intercellular?
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    Is interstial fluid a part of the external environment?
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  • David
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  • karys
    Does internal environment refer to as plasma?
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  • Ricardo Liggins
    Which system control internal environment of body?
    3 years ago
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    What are relationship between hand and internal environment of the body?
    3 years ago
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    What is the internal environment of humans?
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  • kelsey king
    What regulates the internal enviroment of amoeba?
    3 years ago
  • robel
    How digestive system mantain external environmental of the body?
    3 years ago
  • Amira
    WHAT IS REGULATION OF INTERNAL ENVORONMENT?
    3 years ago
  • OLIMPIA
    What make internal enviroment of homeostasis different from external?
    2 years ago
  • lucia
    What is the homeostasis of the internal environment important for survival of an individual?
    2 years ago
  • Lucia Douglas
    What is the constant internal environment of the body?
    2 years ago
  • mira
    What is the internal environmentof the hody?
    2 years ago
  • kyla craig
    Why ECF is termed as internal enviroment?
    2 years ago
  • kayley
    What does the digestive system exchange with the environment?
    2 years ago
  • Valente
    How does water maintain homeostasis?
    2 years ago
  • sara mueller
    How does amoeba maitam its interanal balance?
    2 years ago
  • daniella
    Why Homeostatic Control Of Composition Of Tissue Fluid Is Vital For Body Functions.?
    2 years ago
  • Gimja
    How amoeba involves in homeostasis?
    2 years ago
  • maria
    How pancreas bring about regulation of internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • Marina
    What does the internal environment of tje body consist of?
    2 years ago
  • SEMIRA
    What does the internal environment of the body refer to?
    2 years ago
  • joyce axford
    How does amoeba maitain its internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • Rita Samuel
    What is homeostasis in regulation of the internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • Monika Frankfurter
    What is the name of ahomone responsible for homeostasis process in emoeba?
    2 years ago
  • lavinia
    How does oxygen affect internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • gerardino palermo
    Why is ECF refered to as the external environment?
    2 years ago
  • marina
    What does our internal environment cosist of *homeostssi(?
    2 years ago
  • Isaia Schiavone
    How homeostasis of a cell is kept when their external environment changes?
    2 years ago
  • Katie-leigh
    How do plants maintain its internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • ulrich
    What is regulation of internal enviroment.?
    2 years ago
  • toini
    How do celks regulate internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • aziz welde
    WHAT IS REGULATION OF INTRRNAL EVIRONMENT?
    2 years ago
  • yvonne
    Which body fluid is considered to be the body's internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • azzeza
    What are the control systems among the intracellular and extracellular internal environment.?
    2 years ago
  • selassie ali
    How PFM disturbs the internal envirnment in physiology?
    2 years ago
  • tuija
    How does the body coordinate to monitor its internal activities?
    2 years ago
  • deborah
    Where would point out internal environment of body?
    2 years ago
  • yolanda burrowes
    How homeostasis is related to environmental physiology?
    2 years ago
  • manuela
    What are internal body mechanism?
    2 years ago
  • SWEN
    How do the human body systems respond to changfes in the external enviroment?
    2 years ago
  • veli
    What is external environment of the body in anatomy?
    2 years ago
  • stefanie
    Why is the extracellular fluid called the internal enviroment of the body?
    2 years ago
  • jennie graham
    How to maintain a stable internal environment in body?
    2 years ago
  • timothy
    What is the difference between internal and external environment of the body?
    2 years ago
  • Sarah
    Why does internal environment is needed to be regulated and kept in a narrow limit?
    2 years ago
  • hamid
    What is not a part of the internal environment of the human body?
    2 years ago
  • jennifer
    Why homeostasis affect the internal and external environment?
    2 years ago
  • alexa
    How does digestion and absorption maintain internal enviroment?
    2 years ago
  • belladonna
    How do monocots regulate the internal enviroment?
    2 years ago
  • Mikael
    How does disease affect homeostasis of the human body in a journal?
    2 years ago
  • Ambessa
    What structure separates the internal environment of a cell from the external enviroment?
    2 years ago
  • elizabeth
    What is internal environment in biology?
    2 years ago
  • diego
    Is the liver in contact with the external environemnt?
    2 years ago
  • Isabel
    What is the difference between extracellular fluid and internal evironment?
    2 years ago
  • YORDA
    What is the difference between human body environment and seawater components?
    2 years ago
  • sayid
    How body systems function together to maintain homeostasis?
    2 years ago
  • dawit petros
    Which 2 dy system is responsible to control responses to internal and external environments?
    2 years ago
  • linda
    IS THE RELATIVE CONSISTENCY OF THE BODY'S INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT?
    2 years ago
  • debra
    Is the chemical environment part of the external environment?
    2 years ago
  • fulvus
    What are organ responsible for regulations of internal environment?
    2 years ago
  • frank
    How does the sliding filament relate to homeostasis?
    2 years ago
  • alfredo
    How do the human body systems respond to changes in the external environment?
    2 years ago
  • amaranth
    Why is ecf is called intenal environment?
    2 years ago
  • margaret
    Is the extracellular environment your organs?
    2 years ago
  • daniel
    WHICH STRUCTURE IN AMOEBA HAS A HOMEOSTATIC FUNCTION?
    2 years ago
  • Libera
    How does the lungs help maintain a constant internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • ceredic
    What fluids make up the body's internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • sointu
    How do lungs help in the maintenance of constant internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • GALILEO
    What makes up man internal environment in an organism?
    1 year ago
  • Karin Meister
    What are the organs in the body that response to change in immediate environment?
    1 year ago
  • Annett
    How body regulates change in external environments?
    1 year ago
  • veera sainio
    Does response to a change in the internal enviroment is carried out by tissue fluid?
    1 year ago
  • rebecca
    How blood is internal enviroment?
    1 year ago
  • JOSPHINE
    How do cells coordinate activities within their internal environment and the external environment ?
    1 year ago
  • sinikka
    How does a dragonfly respond to maintain a stable internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • marigold sackville
    What is the internal environment of the body of a multicellular organism What is its role?
    1 year ago
  • Raakel
    How does the body reach homeostasis when there is an internal change?
    1 year ago
  • ruby
    How do cells maintain homeostasis of their internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • jason
    What is a change in the environment called human body?
    1 year ago
  • Goytiom
    What nerve monitors the bodys internal and external conditions?
    1 year ago
  • mike
    Is the interstitial fluid a part of the internal or external environment of our bodies?
    1 year ago
  • Sol
    What is an amoeba roles in the environmental?
    1 year ago
  • Maik
    What nerves monitor the body’s internal and external conditions?
    1 year ago
  • Frieda
    How does the outside enviroment impact the internal enviroment of the human body?
    1 year ago
  • savanna hornblower
    What is the relationship between external environment and internal environment in the body fluid?
    1 year ago
  • ALFONSINA
    What response does the human body make to internal environments?
    1 year ago
  • russell
    How does homeostasis regulate the internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • AMBROGIO BONI
    How does digestion maintain internal environmets?
    1 year ago
  • segan
    How and why are body systems responded to extentral and iternal?
    1 year ago
  • AGAMENNONE
    What body system reacts to external eviroment conditions and protects the body deeper \]]?
    1 year ago
  • amalio
    What organs are associated with maintaining the internal environment of the body?
    1 year ago
  • cooper
    Is the enviroment changing our internal body structure?
    1 year ago
  • tom underhill
    Which fluids are part of internal environment?
    1 year ago
  • temesgen
    What is tthe internal environment of the body?
    12 months ago
  • MAY
    How does the human body respond to internal and external changes in its environment?
    12 months ago
  • annett
    How does a change in the external enviroment of the body affect an organism?
    11 months ago
  • Bruce
    How does the body regulates its internal enviornent dring excerciese?
    11 months ago
  • medardo lombardo
    How does water and solutes in the body help to keep the internal environment?
    11 months ago
  • Herugar
    What is used to monitor and regulate your internal environment?
    11 months ago
  • aaron
    How does the body respond to changes in its envioronment?
    10 months ago
  • sara
    How does structure and function contribute to the body's constant internal environment?
    10 months ago
  • Carla Brown
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    10 months ago
  • lexi
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    10 months ago
  • fatimah
    What part of a human body preserves a stable internal enviornment?
    10 months ago
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    How do the lungs help in maintaining homeostasis of the extracellular fluid?
    10 months ago
  • FIORENZA
    How do we control our intrnal environment of human body?
    10 months ago
  • semolina
    How does the skeleton help maintain a constant internal environment?
    10 months ago
  • neve
    What part of the body senses a change in the internal or external environment?
    9 months ago
  • landolfo loggia
    How do stonefish maintain their internal enviornment?
    9 months ago
  • KIRSTEN
    What are the internal and external fluids tof the body?
    8 months ago
  • henry
    How do cells coordinate activities within their internal and external influence?
    8 months ago
  • iivari
    Which system coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environment?
    8 months ago
  • Rosie Kennedy
    How does hemostais balance external environment with internal?
    8 months ago
  • aila
    How many systems make up the internal environment?
    8 months ago
  • NICO
    How chameleon reacts to internal conditions?
    8 months ago
  • jo headstrong
    Why tight regulation in the internal environment is important kidneys?
    7 months ago
  • april
    What is meant by internal environment biology?
    7 months ago
  • zula
    How does the heart detect changes in your internal. enviornement?
    6 months ago
  • Feaven
    What constitutes the human internal enviroment?
    6 months ago
  • AMELIA
    What is the internal environment of a cell in your body?
    6 months ago
  • abrha
    Is pleural fluid internal environment?
    6 months ago
  • Ali
    What fluid belong to the internal environment?
    6 months ago
  • welde ermias
    What is the process of maintaining a relatively constant internal environment in the body?
    6 months ago
  • Marroc
    What is the term Internal evironment of an organ?
    5 months ago
  • Milen
    What do we call the maintenance of the internal environment of the body?
    5 months ago
  • timo
    Does bacteria maintain a stable internal environment?
    4 months ago
  • Monica
    What elizets responces that change the conditions of internal enviornments in body?
    3 months ago
  • Anja
    How do trout maintain a stable internal environment?
    3 months ago
  • KEVIN
    How does the human body control the internal environment?
    3 months ago
  • KELSEY GRANT
    Is intercellular fluid an internal environment?
    3 months ago
  • Christina
    How do amoebas maintain homeostasis?
    3 months ago
  • anja
    What is your eternal environment maintained thorugh?
    3 months ago
  • Aamos Halvari
    Does the cardiovascular system interact with the external environment?
    3 months ago
  • conner
    How does amoeba control internal conditions?
    3 months ago
  • moro
    What maintains a steady internal enviroment for the body?
    3 months ago
  • Demet
    How does cell maintain internal environment?
    2 months ago
  • genet
    How does the body maintain internal environmernt relayte to patients?
    2 months ago
  • girolamo
    How does the way in which the body maintains its internal environment relate to patients?
    2 months ago
  • amanda
    How do bees maintain a stable internal environment?
    2 months ago
  • taneli
    What system is responsible for detecting bodys environment?
    1 month ago
  • Carla
    Which type of system maintains a constant internal enviroment?
    1 month ago
  • virginia
    What is a change in environent called homostatis?
    1 month ago
  • Mewael
    How does the outside environment impact the internal environment of the human body?
    1 month ago
  • pearl
    How do cells regulate their internal environments?
    1 month ago
  • prisca
    What type of internal environment our body need?
    23 days ago
  • Ayesha
    What does body composition refer to external or internal?
    18 days ago
  • Becky
    How body balance related to maintain internal environment?
    11 days ago
  • Dina
    What is the bodys requirement to maintain a constant internal environment by internal factors?
    9 days ago
  • thomas burns
    What are the levels at which organismis control their internal enviorment?
    1 day ago
  • Caramella
    What are some properties of our internal environment that differ from the surrounding environment?
    5 hours ago

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