Smooth Muscle

Having described the properties and control of skeletal muscle, we now examine the second of the three types of muscle found in the body—smooth muscle. Two characteristics are common to all smooth muscles: they lack the cross-striated banding pattern found in skeletal and cardiac fibers (hence the name "smooth" muscle), and the nerves to them are derived from the autonomic division of the nervous system rather than the somatic division. Thus, smooth muscle is not normally under direct voluntary control.

Smooth muscle, like skeletal muscle, uses cross-bridge movements between actin and myosin filaments to generate force, and calcium ions to control cross-bridge activity. However, the organization of the

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition



contractile filaments and the process of excitation-contraction coupling are quite different in these two types of muscle. Furthermore, there is considerable diversity among smooth muscles with respect to the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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