SECTION A NEURAL TISSUE
Structure and Maintenance of
SECTION A SUMMARY SECTION A KEY TERMS SECTION A REVIEW QUESTIONS
SECTION B SUMMARY SECTION B KEY TERMS SECTION B REVIEW QUESTIONS
SECTION C SYNAPSES
SECTION C SUMMARY SECTION C KEY TERMS SECTION C REVIEW QUESTIONS
STRUCTURE OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Central Nervous System: Brain
Autonomic Nervous System Blood Supply, Blood-Brain Barrier Phenomena, and Cerebrospinal Fluid
SECTION D SUMMARY SECTION D KEY TERMS SECTION D REVIEW QUESTIONS CHAPTER 8 CLINICAL TERMS CHAPTER 8 THOUGHT QUESTIONS
Vander et al.: Human I II. Biological Control I 8. Neural Control I I © The McGraw-Hill
Physiology: The Systems Mechanisms Companies, 2001 Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition
In order to coordinate the functions of the trillions of cells of the human body, two control systems exist. One, the endocrine system, is a collection of blood-borne messengers that works slowly, while the other, the nervous system, is a rapid control system. Together they regulate most internal functions and organize and control the activities we know collectively as human behavior. These activities include not only such easily observed acts as smiling and walking but also experiences such as feeling angry, being motivated, having an idea, or remembering a long-past event. Such experiences, which we attribute to the "mind," are related to the integrated activities of nerve cells in as yet unidentified ways.
The various structures of the nervous system are intimately interconnected, but for convenience they are divided into two parts: (1) the central nervous system (CNS), composed of the brain and spinal cord; and (2) the peripheral nervous system, consisting of the nerves, which extend between the brain or spinal cord and the body's muscles, glands, and sense organs (Figure 8-1). For example, branches of the peripheral nervous system go between the base of the spine and the tips of the toes and, although they are not shown in Figure 8-1, between the base of the brain and the internal organs.
In this chapter, we are concerned with the components common to all neural mechanisms: the structure of individual nerve cells, the mechanisms underlying neural function, and the basic organization and major divisions of the nervous system.
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