I. Molecules are formed by linking atoms together.

II. A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. Each type of atom can form a characteristic number of covalent bonds: hydrogen forms one; oxygen, two; nitrogen, three; and carbon, four.

III. Molecules have characteristic shapes, which can be altered within limits by the rotation of their atoms around covalent bonds.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

PART ONE Basic Cell Functions

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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