Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from the Greek glycos, sugar, and lysis, breakdown) is a pathway that partially catabolizes carbohydrates, primarily glucose. It consists of 10 enzymatic reactions that convert a six-carbon molecule of glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate, the ionized form of pyruvic acid (Figure 4-19). The

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Pyruvic Acid Krebs Cycle

FIGURE 4-18

Pathways linking the energy released from the catabolism of fuel molecules to the formation of ATP.

FIGURE 4-18

Pathways linking the energy released from the catabolism of fuel molecules to the formation of ATP.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism CHAPTER FOUR

Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism CHAPTER FOUR

HO OH H OH

H OH Glucose

HO OH H OH

H OH Glucose 6-phosphate

OH H Fructose 6-phosphate

OH H Fructose 6-phosphate

^ADP

OH H

OH H

COOH

3-Phosphoglycerate

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

CH2-OH O

I II

COO-2-Phosphoglycerate

H2O O ADP

COO-Phosphoenolpyruvate

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

T

O

ch2-o-p-o-

CH2-|

O- ©

1 1

3-Phosphoglyceraldehyde

NAD+ CH-OH

COO-Pyruvate

COO-

(anaerobic)

COO-

(anaerobic)

(aerobic)

To Krebs cycle

Lactate

(aerobic)

To Krebs cycle

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

Good Carb Diet

Good Carb Diet

WHAT IT IS A three-phase plan that has been likened to the low-carbohydrate Atkins program because during the first two weeks, South Beach eliminates most carbs, including bread, pasta, potatoes, fruit and most dairy products. In PHASE 2, healthy carbs, including most fruits, whole grains and dairy products are gradually reintroduced, but processed carbs such as bagels, cookies, cornflakes, regular pasta and rice cakes remain on the list of foods to avoid or eat rarely.

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