Glycolysis

Glycolysis (from the Greek glycos, sugar, and lysis, breakdown) is a pathway that partially catabolizes carbohydrates, primarily glucose. It consists of 10 enzymatic reactions that convert a six-carbon molecule of glucose into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate, the ionized form of pyruvic acid (Figure 4-19). The

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Pyruvic Acid Krebs Cycle

FIGURE 4-18

Pathways linking the energy released from the catabolism of fuel molecules to the formation of ATP.

FIGURE 4-18

Pathways linking the energy released from the catabolism of fuel molecules to the formation of ATP.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism CHAPTER FOUR

Protein Activity and Cellular Metabolism CHAPTER FOUR

HO OH H OH

H OH Glucose

HO OH H OH

H OH Glucose 6-phosphate

OH H Fructose 6-phosphate

OH H Fructose 6-phosphate

^ADP

OH H

OH H

COOH

3-Phosphoglycerate

1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate

CH2-OH O

I II

COO-2-Phosphoglycerate

H2O O ADP

COO-Phosphoenolpyruvate

Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

T

O

ch2-o-p-o-

CH2-|

O- ©

1 1

3-Phosphoglyceraldehyde

NAD+ CH-OH

COO-Pyruvate

COO-

(anaerobic)

COO-

(anaerobic)

(aerobic)

To Krebs cycle

Lactate

(aerobic)

To Krebs cycle

Dihydroxyacetone phosphate

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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