Pathways of amino acid metabolism.
transaminated, as described above, to form the amino acids glutamate and alanine. Thus glucose can be used to produce certain amino acids, provided other amino acids are available in the diet to supply amino groups for transamination. However, only 11 of the 20 amino acids can be formed by this process because 9 of the specific keto acids cannot be synthesized from other intermediates. The 9 amino acids corresponding to these keto acids must be obtained from the food we eat and are known as essential amino acids.
Figure 4-31 provides a summary of the multiple routes by which amino acids are handled by the body. The amino acid pools, which consist of the body's total free amino acids, are derived from (1) ingested protein, which is degraded to amino acids during digestion in the intestinal tract, (2) the synthesis of nonessential amino acids from the keto acids derived from carbohydrates and fat, and (3) the continuous breakdown of body proteins. These pools are the source of amino acids for the resynthesis of body protein and a host of specialized amino acid derivatives, as well as for conversion to carbohydrate and fat. A very small quantity of amino acids and protein is lost from the body via the urine, skin, hair, fingernails, and in women, the menstrual fluid. The major route for the loss of amino acids is not their excretion but rather their deamination, with ultimate excretion of the nitrogen atoms as urea in the urine. The terms negative nitrogen balance and positive nitrogen balance refer to whether there is a net loss or gain, respectively, of amino acids in the body over any period of time.
If any of the essential amino acids are missing from the diet, a negative nitrogen balance—that is, loss greater than gain—always results. The proteins that require a missing essential amino acid cannot be synthesized, and the other amino acids that would have been incorporated into these proteins are metabolized. This explains why a dietary requirement for protein cannot be specified without regard to the amino acid composition of that protein. Protein is graded in terms of how closely its relative proportions of essential amino acids approximate those in the average body protein. The highest quality proteins are found in animal products, whereas the quality of most plant proteins is lower. Nevertheless, it is quite possible to obtain adequate quantities of all essential amino acids from a mixture of plant proteins alone.
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