Figure

The ability of water to dissolve sodium chloride crystals depends upon the electrical attraction between the polar water molecules and the charged sodium and chloride ions.

Nonpolar region Polar region

Amphipathic molecule

FIGURE 2-6

In water, amphipathic molecules aggregate into spherical clusters. Their polar regions form hydrogen bonds with water molecules at the surface of the cluster.

FIGURE 2-6

In water, amphipathic molecules aggregate into spherical clusters. Their polar regions form hydrogen bonds with water molecules at the surface of the cluster.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

PART ONE Basic Cell Functions grams. The unit of volume in the metric system is a liter (L). (One liter equals 1.06 quarts. See Appendix C for metric and English units.) Smaller units are the milliliter (ml, or 0.001 liter) and the microliter (^l, or 0.001 ml). The concentration of a solute in a solution can then be expressed as the number of grams of the substance present in one liter of solution (g/L).

A comparison of the concentrations of two different substances on the basis of the number of grams per liter of solution does not directly indicate how many molecules of each substance are present. For example, 10 g of compound X, whose molecules are heavier than those of compound Y, will contain fewer molecules than 10 g of compound Y. Concentrations in units of grams per liter are most often used when the chemical structure of the solute is unknown. When the structure of a molecule is known, concentrations are usually expressed as moles per liter, which provides a unit of concentration based upon the number of solute molecules in solution, as described next.

The molecular weight of a molecule is equal to the sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in the molecule. For example, glucose (C6H12O6) has a molecular weight of 180 (6 X 12 + 12 X 1 + 6 X 16 = 180). One mole (abbreviated mol) of a compound is the amount of the compound in grams equal to its molecular weight. A solution containing 180 g of glucose (1 mol) in 1 L of solution is a 1 molar solution of glucose (1 mol/L). If 90 g of glucose are dissolved in enough water to produce 1 L of solution, the solution will have a concentration of 0.5 mol/L. Just as 1 gram atomic mass of any element contains the same number of atoms, 1 mol (1 gram molecular mass) of any molecule will contain the same number of moleculesâ€” 6 X 1023. Thus, a 1 mol/L solution of glucose contains the same number of solute molecules per liter as a 1 mol/L solution of urea or any other substance.

The concentrations of solutes dissolved in the body fluids are much less than 1 mol/L. Many have concentrations in the range of millimoles per liter (1 mmol/L = 0.001 mol/L), while others are present in even smaller concentrationsâ€”micromoles per liter (1 ^mol/L = 0.000001 mol/L) or nanomoles per liter (1 nmol/L = 0.000000001 mol/L).

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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• estella noakes
How many nanomoles of hydrogen in 1 liter of water?
7 years ago