Cell Organelles

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I. The nucleus transmits and expresses genetic information.

a. Threads of chromatin, composed of DNA and protein, condense to form chromosomes when a cell divides.

b. Ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleolus.

II. Ribosomes, composed of RNA and protein, are the sites of protein synthesis.

III. The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of flattened sacs and tubules in the cytoplasm. a. Granular endoplasmic reticulum has attached ribosomes and is primarily involved in the packaging of proteins that are to be secreted by the cell or distributed to other organelles.

b. Agranular endoplasmic reticulum is tubular, lacks ribosomes, and is the site of lipid synthesis and calcium accumulation and release.

IV. The Golgi apparatus modifies and sorts the proteins that are synthesized on the granular endoplasmic reticulum and packages them into secretory vesicles.

V. Endosomes are membrane-bound vesicles that fuse with vesicles derived from the plasma membrane and bud off vesicles that are sent to other cell organelles.

VI. Mitochondria are the major cell sites that consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide in chemical processes that transfer energy to ATP, which can then provide energy for cell functions.

VII. Lysosomes digest particulate matter that enters the cell.

VIII. Peroxisomes use oxygen to remove hydrogen from organic molecules and in the process form hydrogen peroxide.

IX. The cytoplasm contains a network of three types of filaments that form the cytoskeleton: (1) microfilaments, (2) intermediate filaments, and (3) microtubules.


light microscope


electron microscope


eukaryotic cell


prokaryotic cell

endoplasmic reticulum

plasma membrane

granular endoplasmic

cell organelle



agranular endoplasmic




Golgi apparatus

intracellular fluid

secretory vesicle





integral membrane protein

mitochondrial cristae

transmembrane protein

mitochondrial matrix

peripheral membrane






fluid-mosaic model





intermediate filament

tight junction


gap junction


nuclear envelope


nuclear pore



1. In terms of the size and number of cells, what makes an elephant larger than a mouse?

2. Identify the location of cytoplasm, cytosol, and intracellular fluid within a cell.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body Function, Eighth Edition

PART ONE Basic Cell Functions

I. Basic Cell Functions

3. Cell Structure

Identify the classes of organic molecules found in 10.

cell membranes.

Describe the orientation of the phospholipid 11.

molecules in a membrane. 12.

Which plasma membrane components are 13.

responsible for membrane fluidity?

Describe the location and characteristics of integral 14.

and peripheral membrane proteins.

Describe the structure and function of the three types 15. of junctions found between cells. What function is performed by the nucleolus? Describe the location and function of ribosomes.

Contrast the structure and functions of the granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum. What function is performed by the Golgi apparatus? What functions are performed by endosomes? Describe the structure and primary function of mitochondria.

What functions are performed by lysosomes and peroxisomes?

List the three types of filaments associated with the cytoskeleton. Identify the structures in cells that are composed of microtubules.

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body

Vander et al.: Human Physiology: The Mechanism of Body

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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  • charles
    What organelles in the body consume oxygen?
    8 years ago
  • lucilla
    Which organelle consumes oxygen?
    7 years ago

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