Brainstem

All the nerve fibers that relay signals between the spinal cord, forebrain, and cerebellum pass through the brainstem. Running through the core of the brain-stem and consisting of loosely arranged neuron cell bodies intermingled with bundles of axons is the reticular formation, which is the one part of the brain absolutely essential for life. It receives and integrates input from all regions of the central nervous system and processes a great deal of neural information. The reticular formation is involved in motor functions, cardiovascular and respiratory control, and the mechanisms that regulate sleep and wakefulness and focus attention. Most of the biogenic amine neurotransmitters are released from the axons of cells in the reticular formation and, because of the far-reaching projections of these cells, affect all levels of the nervous system.

Some reticular formation neurons send axons for considerable distances up or down the brainstem and beyond, to most regions of the brain and spinal cord. This pattern explains the very large scope of influence that the reticular formation has over other parts of the central nervous system and explains the widespread effects of the biogenic amines.

The pathways that convey information from the reticular formation to the upper portions of the brain affect wakefulness and the direction of attention to specific events by selectively facilitating neurons in some areas of the brain while inhibiting others. The fibers that descend from the reticular formation to the spinal cord influence activity in both efferent and afferent neurons. There is considerable interaction between the reticular pathways that go up to the fore-brain, down to the spinal cord, and to the cerebellum. For example, all three components function in controlling muscle activity.

The reticular formation encompasses a large portion of the brainstem, and many areas within the reticular formation serve distinct functions. For example, some reticular-formation neurons are clustered together, forming brainstem nuclei and integrating centers. These include the cardiovascular, respiratory, swallowing, and vomiting centers, all of which are discussed in subsequent chapters. The reticular formation also has nuclei important in eye-movement control and the reflex orientation of the body in space.

In addition, the brainstem contains nuclei involved in processing information for 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves. These are the peripheral nerves that connect with the brain and innervate the muscles, glands, and sensory receptors of the head, as well as many organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavities (Table 8-8).

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