Bipolar Disorders Ebooks Catalog
Bipolar Disorder Uncovered
If you're wanting to learn about bipolar disorder... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You are about to take an in-depth look at bipolar disorder. It's all you need to know about bipolar disorder to help you or a loved one lead a normal life. It doesn't matter if you or a loved one have been recently diagnosed or been struggling with bipolar disorder for years - This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!
Manic depression is characterised by dramatic mood swings between mania and depression. It can be controlled effectively by lithium, the therapeutic blood concentration being between 0.5 and 1 mM. It has been argued that the therapeutic effects of Li+ result from its potent inhibitory effect on inositol phosphate metabolism (Berridge et al., 1989). Inhibition of inositol monophosphate phosphatase by Li+ will cause depletion of inositol and reduce the synthesis of inositol lipids required for formation of IP3 (Fig. 14.9). Inositol depletion will be particularly marked in those cells which are unable to replenish inositol by uptake from external sources this is the case for brain neurones where the inositol supply is limited by the blood-brain barrier. By blocking the supply of inositol, Li+ will impair IP3 generation in response to neurotransmitters and dampen the effects of receptor hyperactivity, which is thought to be responsible for the mood swings found in manic depression.
The term mood refers to a pervasive and sustained inner emotion that affects the person's perception of the world. In addition to being part of the conscious experience of the person, it can be observed by others. In healthy people, moods can be normal, elated, or depressed, and people generally feel that they have some degree of control of their moods. That sense of control is lost, however, in the mood disorders, which include depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Along with schizophrenia, the mood disorders form the major psychiatric illnesses today. In the depressive disorders (depression), the prominent features are a pervasive sadness a loss of energy, interest, or pleasure anxiety irritability disturbed sleep and thoughts of death or suicide. Depression can occur on its own, independent of any other illness, or it can arise secondary to other medical disorders. It is associated with decreased neuronal activity and metabolism in the anterior part of the limbic system and...
(1) An adult patient with a history of bipolar disorder had been stabilized on lithium for some years. He remained shy, however, and was referred to an out-of-plan group therapy situation, from which he clearly benefited over a period of several years. In its original benefit structure, this long-term treatment could not have been covered by HCHP (Harvard Community Health Plan, a health maintenance organization serving over 550,000 people in New England). HCHP revised its benefit structure, allowing an 'extended benefit' that would cover protracted therapy of this sort, without extensive copayments, provided the treatment was for a serious condition. But does treatment for shyness count as treatment of a serious disorder The psychiatrist managing the Shy Bipolar's case believed that the shyness was the result of the onset of the bipolar disorder had the disorder not interfered with the adolescent development of this man, who was normally outgoing before its onset, he would probably...
Brown comes to the mental health clinic for a follow-up visit. She is taking lithium to control a bipolar disorder. Ms. Brown tells you that she is concerned because her hands are always shaking and sometimes I walk like I have been drinking alcohol. Explain how you would explore this problem with Ms. Brown.
Acute cannabis administration can cause a spectrum of adverse psychological effects, ranging from hypervigilance and anxiety, to panic, agitation, paranoid thinking, and psychosis (38,40). These are rare at the doses commonly used in research studies but are more likely to occur in susceptible individuals (46,47). Although controlled studies have not been done, susceptible subjects include those with preexisting psychopathology or a history of a psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), or anxiety disorder. Screening for these conditions relies largely on subject self-report and so may not always be completely reliable. Thus, it is prudent to conduct cannabis-administration studies in a setting where appropriate psychiatric intervention is promptly available. This should include facilities for safe physical restraint of agitated subjects and administration of parenteral medication. Cannabis-induced...
This category of ICD-10 (F3x) comprises manic episodes, hypomania (elated and irritable mood below the threshold to mania), bipolar disorder, depressive disorders, cyclothymia (continued mood fluctuations) and dysthymia. The core symptoms are changes of mood and affect to either a depressed form or - on the other side of the scale - a lifted, even manic state of mind. Disorders are classified according to their severity and the presence or absence of psychotic symptoms. Symptoms typical for a depressed state of mind are e.g. loss of interest, decreased mood, sleep irregularities, fatigue or feelings of diminished energy, whereas concomitant symptoms of a manic state include increased talkativeness, delusional thinking, flight of ideas, increased activity, restlessness, decreased need to sleep, reckless behaviour or unnecessary expenses.
Respiratory disease was found to be one of the most common causes of medical hospitalization (18 , compared with 22 for cardiovascular disease) in the 10-year study by Sajatovic et al. (1996) of hospital utilization by elderly veterans with bipolar disorder (n 23) and schizophrenia (n 49). Hussar (1966) examined the autopsy reports of 1,275 chronic white male schizophrenic patients with a mean age at the time of death of 63 years, collected from 29 VA hospitals, and found an increased number of deaths due to pneumonia versus the age-matched rate of the general population. Weiner and Marvit (1977) found increased morbidity from respiratory disease in their middle-aged schizophrenia population, and Dynes (1969) and Saku et al. (1995) found respiratory disease to be a leading cause of death in their schizophrenic population of all ages.
Schizophrenic patients, perhaps because of clumsiness, distractibility, poor coordination, or poor judgment, are subject to various forms of traumatic insult, but there may be other connections. The impact of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on a person's functioning is, of course, related to the extent and type of injury sustained, yet TBI can mimic the features of schizophrenia, making exact diagnosis difficult. Schizophrenia following TBI could be a phenocopy of schizophrenia or the consequence of gene-environment interaction, or the association of a TBI event and schizophrenia could be spurious if those predisposed to schizophrenia have greater trauma for other reasons. Malaspina et al. (2001) investigated the relationship between traumatic brain injury and psychiatric diagnoses in a large group of subjects from families with at least two biologically related first-degree relatives with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. Rates of TBI were significantly...
Treatment of bipolar disorder, causes a decrease in appetite and sustained weight loss in obese individuals. It has not been systematically studied as primarily a weight loss agent but has demonstrated weight loss in patients with epilepsy and bipolar disorders (McElroy et al. 2000 Norton et al. 1997 Rosenfeld et al. 1997) and is being tested in binge-eating disorder (Yanovski and Yanovski 2002). The use of H2 antagonists for weight loss has been suggested in the literature, with speculation that H2 antagonism may affect weight either by decreasing appetite via increases in cholecystokinin, a hormone that may signal satiety to the brain, or through the suppression of gastric acid secretion, which may decrease appetite (Sacchetti et al. 2000). Nizatidine, a histamine H2 blocking agent, was recently compared with placebo as an adjunct to olanzapine treatment, and modest reductions in weight gain were seen in patients receiving 300 mg of nizatidine versus placebo however, weight gain...
Antipsychotic drugs bipolar disorder delusion dystonia Although lithium is not a true antipsychotic drug, it is considered with the antipsychotics because of its use in regulating the severe fluctuations of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (a psychiatric disorder characterized by severe mood swings of extreme hyperactivity to depression). During the manic phase, the person experiences altered thought processes, which can lead to bizarre delusions. The drug diminishes the frequency and intensity of hyperactive (manic) episodes.
Belong to the subgroup of affective disorders in the ICD-10. Depressive episodes could be classified as either mild, moderate or severe according to the ability of the depressed individual to participate in everyday life. Symptoms include depressed mood, diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, loss of weight or appetite, fatigue or loss of energy and sleep disorders. Depressive episodes which are followed by manic episodes constitute the subclass of so-called bipolar disorders.
Dysthymia is a mild form of depression that is triggered by a serious event and lasts for several months to years. Bipolar disorder (formerly called manic depressive illness) is characterized by depression with episodes of mania, a state of elation, which may include agitation, hyperexcitability, or hyperactivity.
Autism is a complex disorder of unknown cause that usually appears before age 3. It is marked by self-absorption and lack of response to social contact and affection. An autistic child may have low intelligence and poor language skills. He or she responds inappropriately to stimuli and may show self-destructive behavior. There may also be stereotyped (repetitive) behavior, preoccupations, and resistance to change.
The major psychological adverse effects of cannabis include anxiety, paranoia, and psychosis. Thus, psychological screening should include a detailed psychiatric evaluation to identify individuals with a history of anxiety, paranoia, psychosis, or psychiatric disorders such as depression, manic depression (bipolar), panic disorder, or schizophrenia, which may be exacerbated by cannabis.