Complete Bioterrorism Survival Guide
For example, particularly robust memory for single events is typically referred to as flashbulb memory in humans. Most Americans have shared several examples of this type of memory, the most recent example being the terrorist destruction of the Twin Towers in New York City. Like most people, I remember vividly how I learned of the attacks, and I am sure I will never forget seeing live on television the second tower collapse. Flashbulb memories are usually associated with a high state of arousal or a high level of emotional valence an example of the strong modulatory influences to which learning is subject to.
288 We presuppose here the normal case of a legal system that is, in principle, ethically legitimate. Terrorist or totalitarian regimes and their freedom restricting suppressive measures are a different matter an enhancement offer under such circumstances would indeed amount to illegitimate blackmailing.
300 We presuppose here the normal case of legal systems that are, in principle, ethically legitimate. Terrorist or totalitarian regimes and their freedom restricting suppressive measures are a different matter an enhancement offer under such circumstances would indeed amount to illegitimate blackmailing.
Severe stress and a feeling of utter frustration and lack of control may lead to a heart attack. Acute life stressors, including bereavement and sudden severe illness, breakdown in a relationship, physical trauma, significant financial and career events, and the much less common but catastrophic events of natural disasters, wars, or terrorist attacks can trigger heart attacks.
Filoviruses, a priority for the response capacity against A List bioterrorism agents, such as EBOV and MARV 3, 6 . The infectious clone systems, currently only existing for ZEBOV (wild-type) 52,78 will become key elements for pathogenesis studies and might be helpful for vaccine development. Pathogenesis studies are dependent on animal models. Since the rodent models for filoviruses are dependent on adapted virus strains, it will be important to develop infectious clone systems for the mouse-adapted ZEBOV 4 , and the guinea pig-adapted ZEBOV 9 such systems are currently under development 17 .
Biosensors are analytical devices that can detect chemical or biological species or a microorganism. They can be used to monitor the changes in the in vivo concentrations of an endogenous specie as a function of a physiological change induced internally or by invasion of a microbe. Of even more recent interest is the use of biosensors to detect toxins, bacteria, and viruses because of the danger posed by chemical and biological terrorism. Biosensors thus find a wide range of applications
Dermal, primary inhalational, and intestinal anthrax are differentiated based on the pathogen's portal of entry. In dermal anthrax, which accounts for 90-95 of human B. anthracis infections) the pathogens enter through injuries in the skin. A local infection focus similar to a carbuncle develops within two to three days. A sepsis with a foudroyant (highly acute) course may then develop from this primary focus. Inhalational anthrax (bioterrorist anthrax), with its unfavorable prognosis, results from inhalation of dust containing the pathogen. Ingestion of contaminated foods can result in intestinal anthrax with vomiting and bloody diarrheas.
Emerging infectious diseases the publics view of the problem and what should be expected from the public health
One of the reasons for this disparity has been the actual increase in the number of emerging and reemerging infections that have surfaced during the last 10 years (Box 1). Examples include newly recognized diseases such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Nipah and Hendra viral diseases, the introduction and spread of West Nile virus infection in North America, and intermittent outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in parts of Africa. Other major concerns include the increasing problems created by antimicrobial resistance and the continued threat of bioterrorism. In 2003 alone, a newly recognized coronavirus spread across five continents sickening more than 8,000 people and causing 774 deaths from a new disease designated severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) 4 , the exotic animal trade resulted in the first cases of human monkeypox in the Western hemisphere 5 , and highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus killed humans and...
Hemorrhagic fever viruses (HFVs) are by far the most deadly of human pathogenic microbes. The CDC has designated nine HFVs as potential bioterrorism agents (Table 14.1). We will focus here on only two of these, the Ebola and Marburg viruses (Figure 14.2). Both of these viruses are fairly recent additions to the repertoire of human pathogens, and not that much is known about their interaction with their human host. There have only been a dozen or so outbreaks of these viruses since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola). So what do we know about the ability of this wall we hide behind our immune system when it comes to bioterrorism agents Can it help us Well, the first thing to remember is that, with the agents on the CDC's A list (not to mention lists B and C), if our immune systems could stop these agents dead in their tracks, they wouldn't be on the CDC lists. The real question is, is there anything we can do to help our immune systems do a better job This is quite...
The cavity of the gut, or lumen, is lined by a single sheet of cells called the mucosa. The mucosa contains a wide variety of cell types. Most of the mucosa is composed of a cell type which is called columnar epithelium because the cells are longer than their diameter. Mucous, or goblet, cells secrete mucus, which is the viscous slippery material that protects the cells of the gut against mechanical abrasion and chemical attack. Other cells secrete enzymes into the lumen. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by parietal cells in the stomach. Other cells in the small intestine secrete basic bicarbonate ion. These cells provide the degree of acidity or basicity appropriate to the different regions of the gut. Other cells are adapted to absorb nutrients from or to secrete fluid into the lumen of the gut.
Light-matter interaction, which is the basis for optically probing structure and function at cellular and tissue levels (see bioimaging in Chapters 7 and 8) as well for the light-activated photodynamic therapy of cancer (Chapter 12) and other diseases benefits from a molecular understanding of cellular and tissue structures and functions. The topics of biosensing (Chapter 9), a hotly pursued area in view of possible threats of bioterrorism and constantly emerging new microbial infections, bioimaging, and multiple analyte detection using microarray technology (Chapter 10), rely heavily on molecular recognition of biological species.
New methods of treating anthrax have become of urgent interest following the recent outbreak of anthrax infections and deaths in the United States as a result of terrorism. In anthrax infection, endospores from Bacillus anthra-cis that gain entrance into the body are phagocytosed by macrophages and carried to regional lymph nodes where the endospores germinate inside the macrophages and become vegetative bacteria (17). Computed tomography of the chest was performed on eight recent patients infected with inhala-tional anthrax. Mediastinal lymphadenopathy was present in seven of the eight patients (18). In a recent case report of one patient, the anthrax bacillus was shown to be rapidly sterilized within the blood stream after initiation of antibiotic therapy. However, viable anthrax bacteria were still present in postmortem mediastinal lymph node specimens (19). This case demonstrates the difficulty that drugs have in penetrating the mediastinal lymph nodes. A potential use of...
A flow cytometer is an optical diagnostic device which is used in research and clinical laboratories for disease profiling by measuring the physical and or chemical characteristics of cells. Flow cytometry is also suitable for rapid and sensitive screening of potential sources of deliberate contamination, an increasing source of concern of bioterrorism. It is also emerging as a powerful technique for agriculture research and livestock development. This chapter introduces the principle of flow cytometry describing the various steps involved in its operation. The various components of a flow cytometer are described.
The Immune System and Bioterrorism Bioterrorism is the use of biological organisms or their derivatives to sow terror in a civilian population. Bioterrorism is an offshoot of biological warfare, and like most progeny it differs from its parent. The main difference is that biological warfare is a highly organized aggressive activity carried out by one state against another, usually through a military arm, with the sole aim of killing or disabling people. Bioterrorism, while using many of the same agents and tactics as biological warfare, is a more ad hoc activity carried out by individuals or political groups against other political groups or states, with a mixture of objectives. Bioterrorism has a more limited history. The first documented instance of bioterrorism in the United States was carried out by an Oregon cult (the Rajneeshees) in 1984, in an attempt to manipulate a local election. Over 700 people were made ill with Salmonella bacteria, though none died. In the early 1990s,...
Primary pneumonic plague, the second major form of plague, is particularly deadly. It occurs when Y. pestis is taken in directly through the respiratory system as opposed to an insect bite. Untreated mortality rates approach 100 . Symptoms set in within a day or two after inhalation of infectious Y. pestis and are initially indistinguishable from other forms of aggressive pneumonia. Aerosolized Y. pestis and the pneumonic plague that results would likely be the choice of terrorists. Bubonic plague carried by fleas is difficult to spread over a large area and does not pass easily from person to person. Experience in diagnosing and treating pneumonic plague is very limited in the United States. Moreover, many currently used antibiotics have never really been tested against Y. pestis in humans. There have been no documented attempts to use Y. pestis as a bioterrorism agent. However, in 1995, a microbiologist was arrested for fraudulently obtaining large amounts of plague bacteria, with...
The most serious incidents of tularemia in humans come from inhalation of bacteria, often through handling of contaminated hay or other grains. Inhalation tularemia requires only a few bacteria, whereas infection through other routes usually requires exposure to millions of bacteria. If F. tularensis were to be used as a bioterrorism agent, it would almost certainly be in aerosol form. Because of the low incidence of inhalation tularemia in the United States, a large outbreak of this disease in a concentrated area would lead to an immediate suspicion of bioterrorism. In the case of inhalation tularemia, the primary target is macrophages resident in the lungs, but the bacteria make their way to regional lymph nodes as well. The lung tissues become generally inflamed and can develop various forms of pharyngitis, bronchitis, and other forms of lung infection. One form or another of pneumonia is the most common cause of death in fatal cases. Tularemia is one of those diseases that have a...
The field of biosensors has emerged as a topic of great interest because of the great need in medical diagnostics and, more recently, the worldwide concern of the threat of chemical and bioterrorism. The constant health danger posed by new strands of microbial organisms and spread of infectious diseases is another concern requiring biosensing for detecting and identifying them rapidly. Optical biosensors utilize optical techniques to detect and identify chemical or biological species. They offer a number of advantages such as the ability for principally remote sensing with high selectivity and specificity and the ability to use unique biorecognition schemes. The topic of optical biosensors is comprehensively covered in this chapter.
Smallpox is on the CDC Category A list because of its high mortality rate and because, as a viral disease, it is essentially untreatable. It spreads very efficiently as an aerosol, and the virus is relatively stable. Also, like anthrax, there is enough residual public awareness of the deadliness of smallpox that news of its spread in a terrorist attack would likely generate considerable panic and social disruption. Since for the past 30 years almost no one in this country has been vaccinated against smallpox, the U.S. population is highly vulnerable to this disease. We do know that the amount of virus-neutralizing antibody produced in response to immunization with vaccinia directly correlates with subsequent protection to V. major. During a natural infection with V. major, antibody production peaks after about three weeks and remains high for several years. Most studies also suggest a role for vaccinia-induced antibody in tagging V. major for phagocytosis and destruction by...
In many respects, the L. pneumophila life cycle resembles the life cycles of Chlamydia and Coxiella, which are obligate intracellular pathogens that spread via cyst-like forms. In particular, Coxiella burnetti is a bioterrorism agent (CDC list of bioterrorism agents that shows striking similarities with Lp
A black Labrador named Charlie (badge K9-001) was the first dog trained by the U.S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms to sniff out firearms and explosives. Charlie has sniffed out more than 200 illegal guns and 500 pounds of hidden explosives. With a nose that outperforms electronic sensors, Charlie helped solve a terrorist bombing case by discovering a tiny fragment of the bomb hundreds of yards from the site of the explosion. Charlie's nose is never off duty on a recreational visit to a Civil War battlefield, it smelled out can-nonball fragments that had been buried for 130 years. ATF dogs receive expert training, but their careers are based on their remarkable sense of smell.
The area of biosensors is rapidly growing worldwide. In recent years, it has received a great deal of attention because of the danger posed by chemical and bioterrorism. The needs cover a wide range, from point detection, to environmental monitoring, to in vivo monitoring. Opportunities for future development are also manyfold and multidisciplinary. Some of these future directions are briefly described here.
Christopher Janaway SHAKESPEARE Germaine Greer SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY John Monaghan and Peter Just SOCIOLOGY Steve Bruce Socrates C. C. W. Taylor SPINOZA Roger Scruton STUART BRITAIN John Morrill TERRORISM Charles Townshend THEOLOGY David F. Ford THE TUDORS John Guy TWENTIETH-CENTURY
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