Know Your Healthy Berries

Berry Boosters

Berry Boosters

Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.

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Berries

Fresh berries and processed berry products generally have been considered safe from pathogenic bacteria because of their high acid content. However, fresh fruit have occasionally been implicated in foodborne illnesses. Bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes have been isolated from fresh strawberries and frozen blueberries, respectively. Also, recent disease outbreaks caused by E. coli O157 H7 and Salmonella spp. in apple and orange juices have challenged the belief that high-acid foods cannot harbor viable pathogenic bacteria. Owing to the acidic similarity of berry juice (pH 3.0-4.5), apple juice (3.0-4.0) and orange juice (3.0-4.0), there is concern that berry juices could carry foodborne illness (FDA, 2001b). Raw raspberries and possibly blackberries imported from Guatemala have been associated with several large Cyclospora cayetanensis outbreaks (Table 2.2). The natural host for this parasite has not been identified. However, contaminated water used for...

Health Supplement Alert Cranberry

Cranberries and cranberry juice are a commonly used remedy for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and for the relief of symptoms from UTIs. The use of cranberry juice in combination with antibiotics has been recommended by physicians for the long-term suppression of UTIs. Cranberries are thought to act by preventing the bacteria from attaching to the walls of the urinary tract. The suggested amount is 6 ounces of the juice two times daily. Extremely large doses can produce gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhea or abdominal cramping. Although cranberries may relieve the symptoms of a UTI or prevent the occurrence of a UTI, their use will not cure a UTI. If an individual suspects a UTI, medical attention is necessary.

Educating the Patient and Family

Chloroquine Take this drug with food or milk. Avoid foods that acidify the urine (cranberries, plums, prunes, meats, cheeses, eggs, fish, and grains). This drug may cause diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach pain, or vomiting. Notify the primary health care provider if these symptoms become pronounced. Chloroquine may cause a yellow or brownish discoloration to the urine this is normal and will go away when the drug therapy is discontinued. Notify the primary health care provider if any of the following occur

Warm Blooded Vertebrates

Like an anteater, this animal uses its snout to find insects in the ground, yet it can also climb trees to acquire birds and eggs, with a preference for fruits and berries. The Central American species is classified as Nasua narica. Other animals that have migrated to the central region but have not changed much from their North American counterparts are the coyote, gray fox, and puma.

Hollies and Hydrangeas

The hollies (Ilex) and inkberries are reasonably hardy shrubs that offer year-round beauty, color, and texture as landscape ornamentals. They are best known for their lustrous, bright green leaves, intricate spiny leaf shapes, and bright red berries, and they are especially desirable as plants during the winter holidays, when holly sprigs and berries brighten both outdoor yards and indoor holiday festivities. Many species offer cover and seasonal nesting habitat for a variety of bird species. Another favorite shrub is the hydrangea (Hydrangea), with its large clusters of flowers it is available in both a compact growth form and larger varieties. Hydrangeas are most often used as decorative shrubs for shady or semishady and moist corners of lots and buildings.

Effect of Educational Information

The effect of information and product samples on consumer attitudes was documented in a Purdue University study (Pohlman et al., 1994). About half of the sample of 178 residents was willing to buy irradiated foods based upon previous exposure to information about the process. After viewing an eight-minute videotape, The Future of Food Preservation, Food Irradiation, subjects demonstrated a significant positive change in knowledge, and willingness to buy irradiated food increased to 90 . Among those who saw the videotape and sampled irradiated strawberries, willingness to buy increased to 99 . These results cannot be generalized to the entire population, since a university community may have a disproportional number of people with more formal education nevertheless, this study demonstrates high acceptance among specific segments of the population.

Results And Discussion

Table 35.1 presents the effect of the various extracts on the infection of the plasmids into E. coli and the expression of the gene product, luciferase. Infection can only occur when the kanamycin resistance contained in the plasmid is expressed by the E. coli. Therefore, it can be seen that only black grape, golden raisin, blueberries, and dried cranberry are effective at protecting the plasmid

Companions And Effects

Borage Tomatoes (attracts bees, deters tomato worm, improves growth and flavor), squash, strawberries Garlic Roses and raspberries (deters Japanese beetle) with herbs to enhance their production of essential oils plant Lettuce Carrots and radishes (lettuce, carrots, and radishes make a strong companion team), strawberries, cucumbers Onion Beets, strawberries, tomato, lettuce (protects against slugs), beans (protects against ants), summer savory Rue Roses and raspberries deters Japanese beetle keep it away from basil

Results of norm of reaction studies

Very few norm of reaction studies have been carried out for quantitative characters found in natural populations, but many have been carried out for domesticated species such as corn, which can be self-pollinated, or strawberries, which can be clonally propagated. The outcomes of such studies resemble those given in Figure 20-7. No genotype consistently produces a phenotypic value above or below that of the others under all environmental conditions. Instead, there are small differences between genotypes, and the direction of these differences varies over a wide range of environments.

Year Round Inhabitants

Ptarmigans spend winters on the tundra, having feathers on their feet to aid traveling in the snow. Living in the driest areas of the tundra, they eat berries and tender leaves in the summer and rely on frozen vegetation during the winter. Their feathers turn white in winter, helping camouflage them from their fiercest enemy, the snowy owl. The owl, a bird of prey, moves southward into the forest in winter when the food supply becomes scarce in the tundra. Owls feed upon lemmings, small birds, insects, and arctic hares that are twice their size.

Migratory Inhabitants

After hibernating in the forest for the winter, grizzly bears move north to enjoy the berries and plants of the summer. These blond-colored bears also eat fish, lemmings, and carrion (remains left over by other animals). Polar bears, who prefer to eat meat, live near the Arctic Ocean to enjoy the seals, walruses, and fish. Occasionally, they move inland and devour berries, carrion, and other tundra animals.

The Stem Of Flowering Olant

Follicle Fruit

Berry Berries usually develop from a compound ovary and commonly contain more than one seed. The entire pericarp is fleshy, and it is difficult to distinguish between the mesocarp and the endocarp (Fig. 8.10). Three types of berries may be recognized. A true berry is a fruit with a thin skin and a pericarp that is relatively soft at maturity. Although most contain more than one seed, notable exceptions are dates and avocados, which have only one seed. Typical examples of true berries include tomatoes, grapes, persimmons, peppers, and eggplants. Some fruits that popularly include the word berry in their common name (e.g., strawberry, raspberry, blackberry) botanically are not berries at all. Figure 8.10 Representative berries. A. Grapes. B. Tomatoes. Figure 8.10 Representative berries. A. Grapes. B. Tomatoes. Some berries are derived from flowers with inferior ovaries so that other parts of the flower also contribute to the flesh. They can usually be distinguished by the remnants of...

The Rose Family Rosaceae

Rose Hip Calcium

The economic impact of members of the Rose Family is enormous, with large tonnages of stone fruits (e.g., cherries, apricots, peaches, plums), pome fruits (e.g., apples, pears), and aggregate fruits (e.g., strawberries, blackberries, loganberries, raspberries) being grown annually in temperate regions of the world (Fig. 24.9). After giving birth, the women of one western Native American tribe drank western black chokecherry juice to staunch the bleeding. Other tribes frequently made a tea from blackberry roots to control diarrhea. Five hundred Oneida Indians once cured themselves of dysentery with blackberry root tea, while many nearby white settlers, who refused to use Indian cures, died from the disease. Men of certain tribes used older canes of roses for arrow shafts (presumably after removing the prickles ). Wild blackberries, raspberries, salmonberries, thimbleberries, dewberries, juneberries, and strawberries all provided food for Native Americans and early settlers, and they...

Asexual Plant Propagation

Plant Propagation Crown Division

Tip layering is used with blackberries, boysenberries, and other plants with flexible stems. The canes are bent over until the tips touch the ground the tips are then covered with a small mound of soil. Roots form on the portion of buried stem, and eventually, shoots will also appear (Fig. 14.20). These new plants can then be separated from the parent stems. Variations of tip layering include forcing a stem to lie horizontally and covering it with small mounds of soil at intervals, or heaping soil around the base of a plant so that the individual stems produce roots there. Once roots have been established, the individual plantlets or pieces of stem can be cut off from the original parent and grown independently.

Feeding Relationships Within a Community

Carnivores, such as the spider, eagle, fox, and birds that eat caterpillars, are meat eaters, feeding primarily on primary consumers. Carnivores are secondary consumers that form the third or higher trophic level. Some consumers, such as the black bear that eats both blueberries and salmon, occupy more than one trophic level.

Carnivores and Archontans

In addition to the insectivores, the primary mammalian predators are the carnivorans. They include the feliforms (cats, hyenas, and mongoose) and the caniforms (dogs, bears, seals, sea lions, walruses, pandas, raccoons, weasels, and their relatives). Carnivora (except the panda) all live by killing prey and eating the meat. For this purpose, they have sharp cutting and slicing teeth and enlarged front canine teeth for stabbing. Most have sharp claws, and cats have claws that are retractable. Some carnivora, such as bears, eat fruit, berries, insects, fish, and almost anything else that is available. The pinnipeds, another group of carnivorans related to the bears, have become secondarily aquatic. These include the seals, sea lions, and walruses. Their aquatic specializations include a streamlined body for swimming, with hands and feet developed into flippers.

Fertilizers and lime are used in agriculture

The availability of nutrient ions, whether they are naturally present in the soil or added as fertilizer, is altered by changes in soil pH. The optimal soil pH for most crops is about 6.5, but so-called acid-loving crops such as blueberries prefer a pH closer to 4. Rainfall and the decomposition of organic substances lower the pH of the soil. Such acidification can be reversed by liming the application of compounds commonly known as lime, such as calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, or magnesium carbonate. The addition of these compounds leads to the removal of H+ ions from the soil. Liming also increases the availability of calcium to plants.

Herbal Alert Diuretics

Numerous herbal diuretics are available as over-the-counter (OTC) products. Most plants and herbal extracts available as OTC diuretics are nontoxic. However, most are either ineffective or no more effective than caffeine. The following are selected herbals reported to possess diuretic activity celery, chicory, sassafras, juniper berries, St. John's wort, foxglove, horsetail, licorice, dandelion, digitalis purpurea, ephedra, hibiscus, parsley, and elderberry. Diuretic teas such as juniper berries and shave grass or horsetail are contraindicated. Juniper berries have been associated with renal damage, and horsetail contains severely toxic compounds. Teas with ephedrine should be avoided, especially by individuals with hypertension.

Scientific Name Uses

Indian pipe June berries Juniper Labrador tea Lamb's quarters Licorice Rhizomes can be used as substitute for true ginger Berries eaten cooked, dried, or raw make excellent jelly Berries usually tart but can be eaten raw make good jams and jellies Seeds of most can be made into flour rhizomes of many perennial species can be dried and ground for flour Fruits make excellent jellies and jams Berries eaten raw or in jams and jellies Berries dried, ground, and made into cakes Berries eaten raw, in jellies or pies, or made into cider (Caution Raw berries can be somewhat indigestible)

NonlgEMediated Food Reactions

Histamine or HRF is found in high concentrations in Parmesan or Roquefort cheese, red wine, and strawberries. Other active substances that are implicated in allergic reactions are also found in foods. Serotonin, a small molecule that dilates capillaries, increases capillary permeability, and contracts smooth muscle, is found in high concentrations in bananas, pineapples, plantain, and avocados.

Bird Courtship

For the most part, the males and females live apart from each other during the course of the year. Only during mating season do the males gather together and compete for females. Each male bird creates a clearing on the forest floor that becomes his playing field. This is where he tries to entice and lure the females. The bird will arrange rocks, shells, colorful fruits and berries, flowers, and inanimate articles such as pieces of glass or other interesting manmade items. In some species, the males will construct different types of forms and structures. Some of these birds erect what look like upright poles of sticks around a tree trunk that are embellished with colorful flowers, mushrooms, lichens, and other objects.

Cranes

Cranes are large wading birds that live in open wetland and meadow habitats. There are fifteen species of cranes in the world. North America is home to two species, the sandhill and the whooping crane. Sandhills are the most numerous of all cranes, and whoopers the least. Cranes are omnivores, though food preferences vary among species. As opportunistic feeders, they dine on numerous animal foods, such as fish, crustaceans, worms, insects, and small animals, and many plant foods, including berries, acorns, grains, and seeds.

Climate and Soil

The sycamore, for example, is the same species in North America as in Europe. The sycamore is a long-lived tree some sycamores that were planted in North America during the colonial era are still alive. The mountain ash, with its bright orange berries, is another tree from Europe (where it is known as the rowan) that has emigrated to North America. The horse chestnut is yet another tree native to Europe that has long been settled in North America.

Shrubs

Many European shrubs have become immigrants too. The box and holly are much prized for foundation planting, and the privet makes a neat hedge. The buckthorn bush has also made the journey, although it is less widely sold at nurseries. The juniper in Europe is the same as the juniper in North America, but the raspberry is not. Currants and gooseberries are European shrubs that have been widely transplanted, although one of the European currant varieties harbors a disease that affects the North American white pine. By contrast, the cranberry is a North American shrub that has lately been transplanted to Europe. North American blueberries are quite different from the related species in Europe.

Fruit Crops

Ples, pears, plums, peaches, cherries, strawberries, and raspberries. Apples are the most important fruit tree crop of temperate regions. Apple and pear fruits are known as pomes because the edible fleshy part of the fruit is a combination of the outer ovary wall and the basal part of the flower. Cultivated apples are believed to have originated in western Asia and were enjoyed in prehistoric times. Apples were brought to North America about 1620 and are now the most widely grown fruit in the United States. Most of the apples grown today are diploids, but many are triploids. Orchards are usually planted with grafted trees, to ensure uniformity of the crop. Literally thousands of varieties of apples have been developed over the centuries since the species was domesticated. The modern cultivated strawberry is a hybrid that apparently formed spontaneously in a European garden between a species of Fragaria from Chile and one from Virginia. Europeans had eaten native strawberries for...

Tropical Fruits

Over the last ten thousand years that humans have been practicing agriculture, many fleshy fruited species have been domesticated and bred for improved fruit production and quality. Strawberries are one of the wide array of fruits grown in the cool regions of the world. Over the last ten thousand years that humans have been practicing agriculture, many fleshy fruited species have been domesticated and bred for improved fruit production and quality. Strawberries are one of the wide array of fruits grown in the cool regions of the world.

Roses and Lilies

The most popular garden plants are roses and lilies. Rose is the common name for members of the family Rosaceae, a family of one hundred genera and three thousand species. Included are important fruit and ornamental species, including the familiar genus Rosa (true roses). Rosaceae and more than twenty other families belong to the order Rosales. Rosaceae grow as trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs. Within this family, food is produced by apple, pear, peach, plum, cherry, apricot, almond, and nectarine trees. Many berries, including raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries, are Rosaceae.

Fruiting Shrubs

In addition to cover and color, many species and varieties of shrubs offer fruits for humans and for wildlife. These include the blueberries (Vaccinium), which occur in ornamental forms and also in low, spreading varieties, and the currants and gooseberries (Ribes), which offer black, purple, red, and white berries, depending on variety or species, that can be harvested and made into jellies and jams or simply left on the shrub to attract wildlife. The blackberries and raspberries (Rubus) are a diverse group of fruiting shrubs famous for their fruits but less desirable as garden shrubs because of their tenacious ability to spread if left untended. However, the fruits are harvested for preserves, pies, wines, and as ingredients in breads and other baked goods. The tangled thickets or briar patches that they form can be useful both as living hedges and as wildlife cover for quail, songbirds, and a variety of mammals.

Viruses

Hepatitis A virus, calicivirus and Norwalk-like viruses have caused outbreaks associated with the consumption of some fruit. These outbreaks have been associated with frozen raspberries or frozen strawberries, melons and fresh-cut fruit. A number of these outbreaks were the result of contamination via an infected food handler during final preparation. Hepatitis A and Norwalk-like viruses are the most commonly documented viral food contaminants. Viruses can be excreted in large numbers by infected individuals and have been isolated from sewage and untreated wastewater used for crop irrigation. Although viruses cannot grow in or on foods, their presence on fresh produce, which may serve as a vehicle for infection, is of concern. Among 14 reports of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks (Hedberg and Oster-holm, 1993), a food handler who was ill before or while handling the implicated food was identified as the source of infection in eight outbreaks.

Market Experiences

Consumer responses to labeled irradiated food have been positive. In early test markets, irradiated mangoes and papayas sold well (Bruhn and Noel, 1987). A record amount of irradiated strawberries was sold in a Florida produce market in the winter of 1992 (Marcotte, 1992). Since 1992, a small produce and grocery store in the Chicago area has featured irradiated strawberries, grapefruit, juice oranges, and other products (Pszczola, 1992). Owner James Corrigan indicates that irradiated produce outsells non-irradiated by twenty to one or more (Corrigan, 1995).

Garden Plants Shrubs

In addition to their uses in gardens, many shrubs are important sources of foods for wildlife and for humans. Fruits of blackberries, blueberries, huckleberries, currents, gooseberries, plums, and hazel nuts are but a few of the foods obtained from shrubs. Many, such as blueberries and raspberries, are made into pies. Some currents and gooseberries are key components of jams and spreads. Still others, such as plums, cherries, and grapes, are eaten as fruits or used in the preparation of jams, jellies, pies, as cooking ingredients, or used for other baked goods. Some fruits are gathered only in the wild, but many others are cultivated. Cranberries, blueberries, and blackberries are cultivated varieties derived from hundreds of years of selecting and cultivating wild native shrubs. Fruits of plums, cherries, and especially the serviceberries, or Juneberries, are used to make fine and natural wines, and it may be that serviceberries were named because they provided the earliest fruits...

Some Learning Goals

When Italian squash plants are producing fruit, I have occasionally seen a young squash just beginning to develop, and I have made a mental note to harvest it within a day or two. Then, other matters have distracted me, and I have forgotten to follow through, only to discover a few days later that my squash has grown into an enormous monster the size of a watermelon. I then have wondered, How did it grow that big that fast The words grow, growing, or growth are used in several ways. If, for example, you see a rubber balloon being inflated with gas, you may refer to its gradual increase in diameter as its growth in size. Or if there is a leak in the roof, you might say that the puddle beneath is growing bigger. In the biological realm, however, growth is always associated with cells. It may be defined simply as an irreversible increase in mass due to the division and enlargement of cells, and may be applied to an organism as a whole or to any of its parts.

Denning

In order to survive such a long period without eating and drinking, bears break down their fat stores. During the winter, they lose 15 to 30 percent of their body weight. In order to build up the fat needed to make it through the winter, brown bears must eat around ninety pounds of food per day during the fall. Most of this food consists of plant material, such as berries, grasses, nuts, and roots, which they unearth with their powerful digging muscles. They also eat some animal material, as available. This may include fish, deer, or elk, and small mammals, such as squirrels or insects. The denning period allows bears to survive winter, a time of food shortage, by using their own stores. Captive bears that are fed through the winter do not den.

Specialized Stems

Cladophylls

Runners are horizontal stems that differ from rhizomes in that they grow above ground, generally along the surface they also have long internodes (Fig. 6.14). In strawberries, runners are usually produced after the first flowers of the season have appeared. Several runners may radiate out from the parent plant, and within a few weeks may grow up to 1 meter (3 feet) or more long. Adventitious buds appear at alternate nodes along The stems of many cacti and some spurges are stout and fleshy. Such stems are adapted for storage of water and food. Other stems may be modified in the form of thorns, as in the honey locust whose branched thorns may be more than 3 decimeters (1 foot) long, but all thornlike objects are not necessarily modified stems. For example, at the base of the petiole of most leaves of the black locust are a pair of spines (modifed stipules stipules were mentioned in the discussion of twigs and are discussed further in Chapter 7). The prickles of raspberries and roses,...

Plant Succession

Plants having widely dispersed seeds may be opportunists that can grow well on denuded (stripped barren) soil. When a section of land is denuded, the first plants to reappear are those considered to be the fittest of all weeds, grasses, and other herbaceous plants. In the eastern part of the United States, poplar and sumac would likely follow gooseberries would likely come next in the western part of the country. Although the fittest may come first, they will in time be crowded out by other plants able to germinate and begin growth in the environment produced by the weeds, grasses, poplars, and sumac. The final, stabilized vegetation, called the climax forest, is determined by environment, climate, and soil. Maple and basswood is one kind of climax forest oak and hickory is another. The soils deposited by the ice of the last glacier that came from the northeast support an oak-hickory climax. The soils deposited by the ice of the last glacier that came from the northwest support a...

Secondary Succession

Secondary Succession Tree

Secondary succession, which occurs more rapidly than primary succession, may take place if soil is already present and there are surviving species in the vicinity. In fact, survivors strongly condition subsequent succession. Many secondary successions follow human disturbances (e.g., land that was cleared when timber was harvested or land converted to farmland). Other secondary successions follow fires. Grasses and other herbaceous plants become established on burned or logged land. These usually are followed by trees and shrubs that have widely dispersed seeds (e.g., aspen and sumac in the Midwest and East, and chaparral plants, such as chamise and gooseberries, in the West). After going through fewer stages than are typical of primary succession, the climax vegetation takes over, often within 100 years.

Polar Bears

Natural Selection Polar Bears

A strong swimmer, the polar bear uses its large front paws as paddles. Its white fur blends in with the ice and snow as it stalks or still-hunts seals. Ringed seals are the polar bear's primary food, but it also consumes bearded seals, and occasionally walruses, belugas, narwhals, musk oxen, and carrion (dead terrestrial and marine mammals). Although largely carnivorous, when on land the polar bear may eat grasses, kelp, berries, and lichens. Males and nonpregnant females do not make dens or

Fruit Types

Fruits can be classified, based on the nature of the pericarp, into two groups fleshy and dry. Fleshy fruits, in turn, are classified into several types, including drupes, berries, pomes, hesperidia, and pepos. Dry fruits are also subdivided into several categories, including follicles, legumes, capsules, achenes, nuts, samaras, schizocarps, and caryopses. The three most familiar types of fleshy fruits are drupes, berries, and pomes. Adrupe is a fleshy fruit that contains a single seed surrounded by a hard, bony inner wall of the pericarp (called the endo-carp). The middle and outer walls of the pericarp (called the mesocarp and exocarp, respectively) are juicy and often sweet. Drupes include all the pitted fruits, such as cherries, plums, peaches, and olives. A berry typically has several seeds, and the pericarp is fleshy throughout. Familiar examples include tomatoes, eggplants, and grapes. A pome is a fleshy fruit, often with many seeds, that has a thick layer of accessory tissue...

Food Allergies

Food allergy can be defined as an immunologie reaction resulting from the ingestion of a food or a food additive as opposed to the more general term food intolerance, which includes any abnormal response to a food or food additive.1 It has been estimated that 6 to of all children are affected by food allergies.Allergies may occur after a small amount of the allergen is ingested and are unrelated to any physiologic effect of the food, food additive, or cross-contaminant.2 The most common allergies encountered during infancy and childhood are to cow's milk protein (CMP), soy protein, fish. eggs, and cereals. Other foods children may be allergic to include berries, nuts, peanuts, and chocolate.4

Other Andean Mammals

Several rodents are native to the Andes. Chinchillas were found living in crevices in the mountains when early Spanish explorers first arrived there. Living off berries and fruits in Peru, Chile, and Argentina, these rodents belonged to Inca royalty, who used their fur to make chinchilla stoles. In the latter part of the twentieth century, they were nearly extinct in the wild but existed in captivity. Related to the chinchilla is the viscacha, which is prey for such animals as the Andean mountain cat. Mountain viscachas have long, rabbitlike ears, and long, squirrel-like tails. East of the mountains lives the plains viscacha, which has shorter ears and a blunter head. The cavy, the South American guinea pig, lives in the crevices of the Andes.

Economic Uses

Outside the grasses, such as wheat, corn, and rice (all in the monocot family Poaceae), most plants of economic importance are eudicots. Examples of economically important eudicot families include members of the bean or legume family (Fabaceae), such as soybean, lentils, and green beans and the sunflower family (Asteracae), which includes sunflowers, lettuce, and artichokes. The mustard family (Brassicaceae) contains numerous members of economic importance, including cabbage, kale, cauliflower, mustard, and horseradish. The rose family (Rosaceae) provides fruits such as strawberries, raspberries, apples, cherries, peaches, and plums as well as numerous ornamentals. The family Solanaceae is the source of tomatoes and potatoes.

Parrots

How Parakeets Lay Eggs Diagram

African gray parrots (Psittacus erithracus) of Central and Western Africa grow to one-foot lengths and one-pound weights. They have gray bodies, black wingtips, and red tail feathers. They eat fruit, seeds, nuts, and berries, nesting in holes in trees. Females lay about four eggs and incubate them for a month, while males feed them. Chicks are fed by both parents. They fly in 2.5 months and parents feed them for 5 more months. These birds form flocks of up to thirty-six individuals. In captivity they live for up to eighty years. Princess parrots (Polytelis alexandrae) live in the scrub land of central and western Australia. They nest in eucalyptus tree holes and eat acacia buds, seeds, berries, and fruit. They are high-altitude fli Indonesian salmon-crested cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) have plentiful, pink-tinted white plumage. Atop their heads are crests of salmon-red feathers, raised to show desire to mate. They eat berries, seeds, nuts, fruits, and insects. Breeding season is in...

Forms of Fruit

The fruits of different species of plants exhibit a variety of forms, and fruit form is a valuable trait in classifying plants. The wall of a ripened ovary is called the pericarp. The pericarp may consist of two or three layers the exo-carp, mesocarp, and endocarp. A berry has a fleshy pericarp with a thin skin. Examples of berries are grapes, tomatoes, peppers, and blueberries. A drupe is a single-seeded fruit having a stony endocarp (that is, a pit). Examples of drupes are cherries, peaches, and olives. A legume derives from a single carpel and splits along two lines. Examples of legumes are beans and peas. A follicle is similar to a legume but splits along one line. An example is milkweed. An achene is a small fruit having a single seed and a hard pericarp. Buckwheat and dandelion are two examples. The list of fruit characteristics goes on, and those who study taxonomic botany make much use of fruit characteristics in the course of classification, see figure 36-1.

Conifers

Swamp Cypress Trees With Knees

Also used for pencils, as well as for cedar chests, closet lining, fence posts, and cigar boxes. It was used at one time in Germany for smoking hams. An aromatic oil used in floor-sweeping compounds is extracted from red cedar wood, and the berries of this and related junipers are widely eaten by birds. Many Native American tribes used the berries and inner bark as survival food during bleak winters. Some roasted the dried berries and brewed a beverage from them. Western red cedar was the most important single plant of Native Americans of the Northwest who used it for housing, clothing, nets, canoes, totem poles, medicines, and other purposes. Berries of the dwarf juniper are used to flavor gin. Some authorities indicate that the word gin may have been derived from genievre, the French word for juniper berry.

Cultivated Plants

Old World plants that have been cultivated for fewer than 2,000 years are interpreted in drawings found at Pompeii and are mentioned by Dioscorides.' They include buckwheat, coffee, currents, gooseberries, horseradish, spinach, parsley, strawberries, and oranges. squash, and vanilla. Several New World forms that came into cultivation after Notes the time of Columbus are black cherries, black walnuts, blueberries, cinchona (the source of quinine), pecans, and rubber.

Antioxidants

Luminescence assays can be used to find new antioxidants that have the potential to increase the antioxidant load above and beyond that which exists from the antioxidants previously mentioned. This is because the light produced from the oxidation of luminol occurs as the result of attack by known, physiologically relevant oxidants such as peroxynitrite and hypochlorite hydrogen peroxide. By using the light-producing reaction between the known oxidants, e.g., peroxynitrite or hypochlo-rite, and luminol to produce oxidation-based blue light, we can identify antioxidants antioxidants inhibit this light. Using this simple chemical system, we have found many polyphenolic compounds that are strong antioxidants. These antioxidants originate in plants, e.g., green or black tea, grapes, blueberries, cranberries, etc. A variety of research has shown that these polyphenolic substances are protective, possibly as anticancer substances. A major reason that this may occur can be seen in the attack...