Improve your Baseball Swing
To use Shannon entropy as a measure of uncertainty and choice, we must first say about what we are uncertain. Suppose our uncertainty is the outcome of the football or baseball season, and we wish to choose the winner of the season. Without apology, we may establish a probability for each team, because these probability measures are our personal degree of belief. We only are required that the sum of all probabilities be equal to one. As the season progresses, some teams will lose games, while others will be winners. Then, one may adjust the appraisal of each team's probability of winning according to the record. At the end of the last game, the winner has prevailed, one is no longer uncertain of the winner, and Shannon entropy goes to zero (see Shannon, 1948, para. 6 Choice, Uncertainty and Entropy).
A 24-year-old right hand dominant man injured his right small finger while playing softball. The ball struck him on the tip of the finger and he thought he only jammed the finger. He describes pulling on the finger, which made it feel a little better, but always noted some deformity, which he attributed to swelling. He did not seek medical attention until 10 days after the injury. When seen, he described persistent pain and lack ofmotion as the main reasons for seeking help.
Baseball-throwing motion may be divided into six phases wind-up, early cocking, late cocking, acceleration, deceleration, and follow-through. The position of the humerus during these phases changes in three dimensions vertically in the coronal plane, horizontally in the anterior-posterior direction, and rota-tionally. Vertically, the humerus begins in minimal mild abduction during the wind-up phase and proceeds to 90 abduction in the early cocking phase, where it changes minimally and is maintained in 90 to 100 of abduction until it decreases at the end of the throw. In the horizontal plane, the humerus begins in a neutral position, is extended 15 posteriorly in the early cocking phase, starts to move forward in the late cocking phase, and is in approximately 35 and 60 of horizontal adduction in the deceleration and follow-through phases, respectively. Rotationally, the arm begins in internal rotation during the wind-up phase, is maximally externally rotated in the late cocking phase,...
Do daily, effective exercise. Eat a healthy, balanced, low fat, low salt diet. Eat healthy food at home rather than snack or eat convenience foods from supermarkets or fast food outlets. Take time for yourself for regular leisure activities every day. Pursue a hobby. This may be a physical form of exercise like gardening, an outdoor sport, cycling, sailing, rowing, basketball, hiking, baseball, or soccer. Team sports are particularly therapeutic but difficult to arrange throughout the year. Take an interest and pride in yourself. Look inwardly for your good points and find these reassuring and a source of self-confidence. Avoid alcohol. Do not smoke. Take a break from work. Reduce caffeine - tea, coffee, chocolate. Drink water if you are thirsty.
A 38-year-old Caucasian man recently came to the attention of his physician when he suffered the second of two bone fractures in the past year and a half. He previously was in relatively good health, was not a smoker, and used alcohol only moderately. However, his only form of exercise was cutting the lawn on weekends during the summer months. He has not required any major surgeries during his lifetime, and had only minor bouts of the typical childhood illnesses. However, at age eight he was diagnosed with asthma after he suffered severe respiratory problems during a baseball game on a hot summer day. He has been treated ever since with a daily tablet of a synthetic glucocorticoid and the occasional use of an inhaler when needed to relieve acute symptoms of the disease.
Axial fluid-sensitive image showing asymmetric edema on the left in the inguinal region compatible with history of athletic pubalgia (A). Coronal IR image demonstrating edema of pubic bones bilaterally (arrows), which came by an incidental finding but this professional baseball catcher had the typical clinical findings of osteitis pubis (B). Fig. 18. Axial fluid-sensitive image showing asymmetric edema on the left in the inguinal region compatible with history of athletic pubalgia (A). Coronal IR image demonstrating edema of pubic bones bilaterally (arrows), which came by an incidental finding but this professional baseball catcher had the typical clinical findings of osteitis pubis (B).
Tears of the ulnar collateral ligament may occur following acute valgus stress injury to the elbow or following acute traumatic elbow dislocation 18,19 .Ulnar collateral ligament tears are caused more commonly, however, by chronic repetitive stress to the elbow elicited by sports activities involving overhead throwing 20-23 . Most tears of the ulnar collateral ligament are full-thickness tears that involve the anterior bundle. The vast majority of these full-thickness tears occur in the midsubstance of the ligament. Complete soft tissue avulsions of the ulnar attachment and less commonly the humeral attachment of the anterior bundle can also occur 24,25 . Avulsion fractures of the sublime tubercle of the proximal ulna are rare but have been reported 26 . Partial-thickness tears of the ulnar collateral ligament also may occur. These partial-thickness tears, which involve the deep intracapsular layer of the anterior bundle, are especially common in baseball pitchers 27 . Fig. 10....
The binomial distribution arises naturally in many problems. It may represent appropriately the distribution of the number of boys in families of size 3, 4, or 5, for example, or the number of heads when a coin is flipped n times. It could represent the number of successful ablation procedures in a clinical trial. It might represent the number of wins that your favorite baseball team achieves this season or the number of hits your favorite batter gets in his first 100 at bats.
Many people, who should know better, believe that a success is due after a series of failures in independent trials. A baseball player who has struck out for a number of times is now believed to be due. The manager of the team and the audience feel that he is virtually certain to get a hit. The batter can count on no help from Fortuna. Unless there has been considerable retraining, with performance demonstrated in practice, the probability for a hit in the next at-bat is not changed, perse, by a long sequence of strike-outs. The probability of the outcomes of experiments or trials that are independent continues to have the same value regardless of the outcomes of preceding experiments or trials.
A 39-year-old man was brought to the emergency room (ER) of a large hospital shortly after being struck in the head with a baseball bat. He was adequately evaluated and then discharged. Eleven days later, he returned to the ER because of increasing lethargy. He was hospitalized, and a computed tomography (CT) scan raised the question of a subdural hematoma. It was late in the evening when the CT scan was interpreted, and the patient was alert, so his physician decided to wait until morning to perform further studies.
Posterosuperior glenoid sclerosis in a 15-year-old male who had pain when throwing a baseball. Axial proton-density weighted image at the level of the proximal humeral physis demonstrates decreased signal intensity within the posterosuperior aspect of the glenoid (arrows) due to sclerosis.
Commotio cordis, or cardiac concussion, refers to sudden death caused by a relatively low-energy chest-wall impact. Although a rare syndrome, it has been reported with increasing frequency in young individuals participating in athletic activities (169-176). Commotio cordis typically occurs in youths age 5-16, who are participating in athletic activities in which there is blunt impact to the chest. Commotio cordis has usually been described with baseball, but has also been reported with hockey, lacrosse, fistfights, soccer, and other athletic activities. In all instances, a chest-wall impact results in rapid Experimental models of high-energy chest-wall trauma have shown that bradyarrhyth-mias (sinus bradycardia, heart block) and tachyarrhythmias (VT, VF) could result from myocardial contusion (178-180). However, these models of chest-wall trauma did not accurately reproduce commotio cordis, in which the force of chest-wall impact does not result in any cardiac pathology. To study the...
Cubital tunnel syndrome in a 19-year-old baseball pitcher with medial elbow pain and evidence of ulnar neuropathy. (A) Axial Tl-weighted spin-echo image of the elbow shows an enlarged ulnar nerve (arrowhead) within the cubital tunnel. (B) Coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted spin-echo image of the elbow shows the thickened, edematous ulnar nerve (arrowhead) as it passes posterior to the medial epicondyle. (From Kijowski R, Tuite M, Sanford M. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves. Skeletal Radiol 2005 34 1-1 8 with permission.)
Pitch pine, also a source of naval stores before slash and other yellow pines became more profitable, was used in the past for the waterwheels of mills. Pitch pine wood was also used as fuel for steam engines, as it produces considerable heat when it burns. Turpentine is considered a premier paint and varnish solvent rosin is used by musicians on violin bows and by baseball pitchers to improve their grip on the ball. Batters apply pine tar to the handles of bats to minimize slippage.
However, the mechanical disadvantage under which most muscle level systems operate is offset by increased maneuverability. In Figure 11-34, when the biceps shortens 1 cm, the hand moves through a distance of 7 cm. Since the muscle shortens 1 cm in the same amount of time that the hand moves 7 cm, the velocity at which the hand moves is seven times greater than the rate of muscle shortening. The lever system amplifies the velocity of muscle shortening so that short, relatively slow movements of the muscle produce faster movements of the hand. Thus, a pitcher can throw a baseball at 90 to 100 mi h even though his muscles shorten at only a small fraction of this velocity.
Baseball For Boys
Since World War II, there has been a tremendous change in the makeup and direction of kid baseball, as it is called. Adults, showing an unprecedented interest in the activity, have initiated and developed programs in thousands of towns across the United States programs that providebr wholesome recreation for millions of youngsters and are often a source of pride and joy to the community in which they exist.