A causative role of viral agents in malignant lymphomas has been established for at least two viruses, namely, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human T-cell leukemia/lym-phoma virus I (HTLV-l). EBV is involved in lymphomas complicating immunocompromised patients and in 30% of non-African Burkitt's lymphoma, while HTLV-l is responsible for the adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma syndrome in some geographic areas (13) (see Chapters ## and ##, respectively). Since EBV has been ubiquitous for years and the role of HTLV-1 is limited to particular patient populations, they cannot explain the increasing incidence of NHL in all parts of the world (30). HCV-associated lymphomas may represent a new model for virus-induced cancer in humans.
In asymptomatic or symptomatic HCV chronically infected individuals, the intimate mechanism(s) responsible for the appearance of malignancy remains still largely obscure. A variable combination of co-factors in the development of hepatic and/or lymphatic disorders in HCV-positive individuals should be considered. The presence of
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