Hepatitis B Virus

Hepadnavirus Replication

HBV is the first human hepatitis virus from which the proteins and genome could be identified and characterized. Before discovery of the viruses, two types of hepatitis hepatitis A for infectious hepatitis and hepatitis B for serum hepatitis were differentiated on the basis of transmission routes and other epidemiologic characteristics 4 . Hepatitis A virus HAV was transmitted by the fecal-oral route, whereas hepatitis B virus HBV was transmitted parenterally. In 1963, Blumberg et al. Studied...

Animal Models For Helicobacterinduced Gastric Cancer

Although administration of V-nitro chemicals with and without salt in animals addressed the possible roles and mechanisms of promoters and nitrosamine induced gastric cancer, it now is clear that H. pylori is an important factor in gastric tumorigen-esis. Furthermore, despite the presence of high nitrites in drinking waters and possible mutagenicity of nitrosated foods, the inconsistency of epidemiologic data suggests that high levels of dietary nitrites nitrates and high-salt diets alone are...

Risk Factors For Anogenital Sil And Cancer Other Than Hpv Infection

Clearly HPV infection is one of the most important risk factors for anogenital SIL and cancer, and HPV infection is likely to be necessary for development of almost all of these lesions. Sexual risk factors such as number of sexual partners, age at first intercourse, and parity have long been associated with cervical cancer, but these likely reflect risk for acquisition of HPV infection. However, although the age-related prevalence of cervical LSIL parallels that of infection, only a small...

Immunotherapy With Ebv As A Therapeutic Target

HD is curable in 80 of cases with combination chemotherapy and or radiation therapy. In those cases where cure is not achieved or patients are unable or unwilling to accept the risks associated with standard therapy, immunotherapy may provide an alternative therapeutic option. Immunotherapy is any treatment that exploits the specificity of the immune system to limit disease progression or effect cure. It may be active as in the case of vaccines or passive as in the case of infused CTLs. Its...

Natural History Of Cervical Hpv Infection And Csil

Cervix Cancer Lsil

There are more than 100 anogenital HPV types and these are generally divided into oncogenic and nononcogenic types by virtue of the frequency of their association with invasive cervical cancer see Chapter 14 . Of the oncogenic types, HPV-16 is the most important because it is the most common type found in cervical cancer, followed by HPV types 18, 31, and 45. HPV 16 alone counts for about 50 of all cervical cancers worldwide 4 . HPV types 18, 31, and 45 are associated with an additional 20 of...

1898 341-343 Transmission Of Warts In The

Note on the experimental transmission of warts in the dog. J Comp Pathol Ther 1898 11 341-343. 2. Rous P. Transmission of a malignant new growth by means of a cell-free filtrate. Am J Med Assoc 1911 56 198-211. 3. Ellermann V, Bang O. Experimentelle Leuk mie bei H hnern. Centralbl F Bakt Abt I Orig 1908 46 595-609. 4. Ciuffo G. Innesto positivo con filtrado di verrucae volgare. G Ital Mal Venereol 1907 48 12-17. 5. Rous P, Beard JW. Carcinomatous changes in...

Viruses And Malignancy

Peyton Rous

Perhaps the first researcher to postulate a viral etiology for cancer was Amedee Borrel. He used the term epitheliosis for the cellular reaction to the invisible viruses responsible for such diseases as smallpox, cowpox, and sheep-pox, as early as 1903 121 . The term is based on the fact that these entities localize and proliferate in epithe lial tissue 122 . Considering the viral inclusions to be parasites, he found them analogous to those found in some malignancies, such as the contagious...