Ayurveda the Science of Life
Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Units(NAVENPVNTMEDUs), under the command of the Navy Environmental Health Center (NAVENVIRHLTHCEN), provide specialized consultation, advice, and recommendations in matters of preventive medicine and environmental health to Navy and Marine Corps activities, ashore and afloat. Services related to food safety include
In 1978, German Federal Health Agency (now called the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices) established an expert committee on herbal remedies (called Commission E). The Commission E is composed of 24 members, including physicians, pharmacists, non-medical practitioners, pharmacologists, toxicolo-gists, biostatisticians, and representatives of the pharmaceutical industry. Fifty percent are experts from clinical therapeutic field. There are 13 full university professors on the Commission. The interdisciplinary nature of Commission E is unique in the world. The safety and efficacy of over 380 herbs have been assessed by the Commission. The World Health Organization (WHO) published Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines in 1991. Subsequently, The WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Vol 1 was published in 1999 and Vol 2 in 2003. Vol. 3 is the latest addition. These volumes contain 28, 29 and 31 monographs respectively. American Botanical Council, Austin,...
For hundreds of years, people have used plants to treat diseases, a practice described as herbal medicine or phytomedicine. Many people in industrialized countries are now turning to herbal products as alternatives or complements to conventional medicines. Although plants are the source of many conventional drugs, the active ingredients in these drugs usually are purified, measured, and often modified or synthesized rather than being used in their natural state. Some issues have arisen with the increased use of herbals, including questions about their purity, safety, concentration, and efficacy. Another issue is drug interactions. Health care providers should ask about the use of herbal remedies when taking a patient's drug history, and patients should report any herbal medicines they take when under treatment. The FDA does not test or regulate herbal medicines, and there are no requirements to report adverse effects. There are, however, restrictions on the health claims that can be...
Subj NAVMED P-5010, MANUAL OF NAVAL PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, CHAPTER 1, FOOD SAFETY 1. The revision to the Naval Preventive Medicine Manual (NAVMED Pub P-5010) Chapter on Food Safety is complete. Chapter 1 of the previous version of P-5010 is hereby cancelled. 3. For follow up to this manual and its chapter, contact the Preventive Medicine directorate at the Navy Environmental Health Center, Norfolk, Virginia. Telephone COM (7 57)4 62-5591 54 51 DSN 864-. MANUAL OF NAVAL PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
Under the management of COMNAVSUPSYSCOM (Code 51), Navy Food Management Teams are composed of traveling instructors devoted to training food service personnel and assisting ships and field activities in improving the general messes. A preventive medicine technician (PMT) serves as a member of each team.
All food employees shall be medically screened for evidence of communicable disease prior to initial assignment in food service. The health screening does not normally include a physical examination but shall be sufficient to detect evidence of diseases that may be transmitted by food. Subsequent health screening (e.g., annual evaluation) is not routinely required. The health screening may be conducted by a physician or a non-physician health care provider, e.g., environmental health officer, nurse corps officer, preventive medicine technician, independent duty hospital corpsman, civilian nurse and civilian environmental health technician. Civilian food employees may be screened by local military medical facilities or they must present documentary evidence, acceptable to the local medical authority, that a complete and thorough health screening has been
Food is defined as a substance taken or absorbed in the body of an organism in order to sustain growth and repair, support vital processes and furnish energy for all activities of the organism. Though it is usually considered necessary for the preservation and maintenance of good health, there are several instances in which food may be harmful to an individual's health.
Based on the risks of food borne illness inherent to the food operation, during inspections and upon request, the person in charge shall demonstrate to the preventive medicine authority knowledge of food borne disease prevention, application of the hazard analysis critical control point principles, and the requirements of the NAVMED P-5010-1, as it relates to the food operation, by (3) Preventive medicine authority (PMA) regulatory authority. (2) Preventive medicine technicians (2) Preventive medicine technicians d. Authority to teach the supervisor manager food service sanitation training refresher course resides with the area Environmental Health Officer (EHO) under the direction of the cognizant NAVENPVNTMEDU. Other organizations may request this authority by applying to the Navy Environmental Health Center (ATTN Director for Preventive Medicine).
(1) These units are not subject to routine food service sanitation inspections. However, OPNAVINST 1700.9 series reguires the Preventive Medicine Service to conduct an initial and annual inspection of family home care units. a. The preventive medicine authority will inspect and approve temporary food establishments prior to start of operations. The individual or agency responsible for the temporary food establishment shall contact the PMA at 13 3. S t 30 days prior to opening to obtain a permit to operate the facility. A model form for requesting a permit to operate a temporary food
(70) Preventive Medicine Authority (PMA) the medical department representatives responsible for public health (preventive medicine). This will be the senior environmental health officer preventive medicine technician for the area of responsibility. In their absence Army veterinary technicians, independent duty corpsmen, senior general duty corpsmen or medical officers may be designated.
The year 2002 finds him in good health and actively involved in research on several well-funded projects in visual science at the exemplary age of 74. No account of Ian's life would be complete without mentioning Antonie (Toni) Howard, Ian's wife since 1956. Toni was a refugee from Hitler's Germany and had been a chemist before getting married. For many years she has helped in all aspects of Ian's scientific work. They have three children, Ruth born in 1957 and the twins Neil and Martin born in 1959. The whole family was present at the celebration, but we forgot to take a group photograph. Ian has agreed to contribute a short autobiography.
Botanical medicine or herbal therapy is a type of complementary alternative therapy that uses plants or herbs to treat various disorders. Individuals worldwide use both herbal therapy and nutritional supplements extensively. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80 of the world's population relies on herbs for a substantial part of their health care. Herbs have been used by virtually every culture in the world throughout history, from the beginning of time until now. For example, Hippocrates prescribed St. Johns Wort, currently a popular herbal remedy for depression. Native Americans used plants such as coneflower, ginseng, and ginger for therapeutic purposes. Herbal therapy is part of a group of nontraditional therapies commonly known as complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Unfortunately, CAM therapies are not widely taught in medical schools. A 1998 survey revealed that 75 of 117 US medical schools offered elective courses in CAM or included CAM topics in required...
Because herbs cannot be sold and promoted in the United States as drugs, they are regulated as nutritional or dietary substances. Nutritional or dietary substances are terms used by the federal government to identify substances not regulated as drugs by the FDA but that are purported to be effective for use to promote health. Herbs, as well as vitamins and minerals, are classified as dietary or nutritional supplements. Because natural products cannot be patented in the United States, it is not profitable for drug manufacturers to spend the millions of dollars and the 8 to 12 years to study and develop these products as drugs. In 1994, the US government passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA). This act defines substances such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and other natural substances as dietary supplements. The act permits general health claims such as improves memory or promotes regularity as long as the label also has a disclaimer stating that the...
The use of herbs and nutritional supplements to treat various disorders is common. Herbs are used for various effects, such as to boost the immune system, treat depression, and for relaxation. Individuals are becoming more aware of the benefits of herbal therapies and nutritional supplements. Advertisements, books, magazines, and Internet sites abound concerning these topics. People, eager to cure or control various disorders, take herbs, teas, megadoses of vitamins, and various other natural products. Although much information is available on nutritional supplements and herbal therapy, obtaining the correct information sometimes is difficult. Medicinal herbs and nutritional substances are available at supermarkets, pharmacies, health food stores, specialty herb stores, and through the Internet. The potential for misinformation abounds. Because these substances are natural products, many individuals may incorrectly assume that they are without adverse effects. When any herbal remedy...
A major impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the 21st century should derive from the practice of preventive medicine, from public health measures to alter lifestyle to one more favorable to cardiovascular health, and from health education to inform people of what they must do to protect their cardiovascular health. Recent expansion and improvements in these measures have occurred, conceivably contributing significantly to the 36 percent decline in cardiovascular mortality during the past two decades, which is responsible for most of the decline in overall mortality.2 has set the stage for opportunities in the next century to direct research and public health activities that can substantially reduce the risk and impact of cardiovascular disease. Foremost among those opportunities is implementation of comprehensive preventive programs of government regulation, health education, and preventive medicine designed to control the major identified cardiovascular risk factors....
It is important to remember that all biologically active agents carry a slight risk, and alternative medications have not been systematically studied or approved by the FDA. This does not mean that they are ineffective instead it means that we lack information to support or refute the validity of therapeutic claims. Indeed, many of the standard agents that have been subjected to the scientific method and determined to be effective had their basis in herbal remedies (e.g., morphine and aspirin). Kava is an alternative medication that is widely accepted as effective in the treatment of anxiety and may be useful in patients with anxiety-amplified pain. Other agents, such as soy and glucos-amine sulfate, are under investigation.
There are many traditional uses of the herb, such as an antiseptic for the skin, mouthwash for canker sores, wash for inflamed or infected eyes, and the treatment of sinus infections and digestive problems, such as peptic ulcers and gastritis. Some evidence supports the use of goldenseal to treat diarrhea caused by bacteria or intestinal parasites, such as Giardia. The herb is contraindicated during pregnancy and in patients with hypertension. Adverse reactions are rare when the herb is used as directed. However, this herb should not be taken for more than a few days to a week. Because of widespread use, destruction of its natural habitats, and renewed interest in its use as an herbal remedy, goldenseal was classified as an endangered plant in 1997 by the US government.
Methods used to study invertebrate circulatory systems are varied. One basic problem is that 95 percent of all animal species are invertebrates, and many of these creatures are not known and have never been studied. The larger, more common organisms that are easiest to study have been subjected to experimentation. Many invertebrates are difficult to maintain in the laboratory, but techniques to maintain them in good health are being developed and improved. Without these culture techniques, experimenters must use recently caught subjects whose condition is doubtful.
A number of studies have attempted to define the predictors of decreased health status among survivors of ARDS or other critical illness. Several studies suggest that the health status prior to admission to the ICU is a strong predictorofthe health status after discharge 32, 33 . A study by Wehler and colleagues showed that patients with the best health status prior to critical illness were more likely to have reductions in their health status while those patients with the lowest health status prior to admission to an ICU were actually more likely to improve from their baseline health status 32 . Similarly, Konopad and colleagues showed that among the very elderly, health status may actually increase from baseline after an ICU admission 34 . Severity of illness is also a significant predictor of health status after discharge from the ICU 18,32,33 . Increasing age predicts decreased health status after critical illness in some studies 32, 33 , but other studies did not find age to be...
During the last century, the leading causes of death in industrialized countries gradually shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and cancer. In addition to advancing age, these conditions are greatly influenced by life habits and the environment. As a result, many people have begun to consider healing practices from other philosophies and cultures as alternatives and complements to conventional Western medicine. Some of these philosophies include osteopathy, naturopathy, homeopathy, and chiropractic. Techniques of acupuncture, biofeedback, massage, and meditation may also be used, as well as herbal remedies (see Chapter 8) and nutritional counseling on diet, vitamins, and minerals.
What about those found to be healthy in a screening programme As stated above, our ability to predict the outcome for an individual is very limited. On that account, there is reason to assume that some individuals classified by the screening test as normal may in fact have an increased risk of becoming ill (false negatives). A harmful effect of screening may also arise in a situation where an individual on testing is found to be without risk factors. A negative screening test may be regarded by the individual as a proof of being healthy and living a healthy life. Ideas of not overdoing things starts to rankle. The next step in the chain might be a worsening in the lifestyle of that individual. This justification for an unhealthy behaviour has sometimes been called the 'certificate of health' effect and must be considered an adverse effect of the screening programme (7).
During the past decade, the importance of regular exercise in the maintenance of good health has been well established. Consequently, with increasing attention now focused on personal fitness, the incidence of sports-related injuries has increased significantly. Both primary care physicians and specialists can expect to see a variety of athletic injuries. All clinicians should be able to recognize these conditions and administer appropriate care. A thorough history, physical examination, musculoskeletal imaging, and laboratory testing are all important in arriving at the proper diagnosis. A treatment plan is then developed for the injured athlete based on these objective findings.
The dried flowering tops of St John's Wort Hypericum perforatum Guttiferae Hypericaceae) have been used as a herbal remedy for many years, an extract in vegetable oil being used for its antiseptic and wound healing properties. St John's Wort is now a major crop marketed as an antidepressant, that is claimed to be as effective in its action as the widely prescribed antidepressants of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) class such as fluoxetine Prozac ), and with fewer side-effects. There is considerable clinical evidence that extracts of St John's Wort are effective in treating mild to moderate depression and improving mood. However, to avoid potentially dangerous side-effects, St John's Wort should not be used at the same time as prescription antidepressants. St John's Wort is a small to medium height herbaceous perennial plant with numerous yellow flowers characteristic of this genus. It is widespread throughout Europe, where it is generally considered a weed, and has...
Patients with chronic diseases require continuous care, but making them stay in hospitals would be very costly and would drastically lower their quality of life. In the case of patients with e.g. memory loss, expensive hospital care would be unreasonable. Today's preventive medicine is able to deliver long-term care to patients.
Ayurvedic Visha, Shringika-Visha, Vatsanaabha (related sp.). Action Sedative, antirheumatic, analgesic, antitussive, antidiar-rhoeal. Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part I and Part II, equated A. chasmanthum with Vatsanaabha. (See A.ferox.) It has the same uses as A. ferox. The alkaloid content of the root ranges from 2.98 to 3.11 includes chasmaconitine and chasmanthinine.
The extent to which a community sample selected by random digit dialing differs from the results of a privately conducted census was examined empirically for Otsego County in New York State (Olson et al., 1992). Given that so many case-control studies rely on random digit dialing as a method of control selection, any systematic tendency to overrepresent some groups and underrepresent others introduces potential bias and suggests that adjustment be made for markers of participation. Overall, the sample selected by random digit dialing and the census yielded very similar distributions. There was a tendency however, for the random digit dialing controls to have participated to a greater extent in certain medical screening tests (Table 5.5), suggesting greater health consciousness or more access to health care. If we were conducting a case-control study of post-
The American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes, as of this writing, 25 medical specialties and about a dozen and a half subspecialties. The specialties are Allergy and Immunology, Anesthesiology, Colon and Rectal Surgery, Dermatology, Family Practice, Internal Medicine, Neurological Surgery, Nuclear Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ophthalmol-ogy, Orthopedic Surgery, Otolaryngology, Pathology, Pedi-atrics, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Plastic Surgery, Preventive Medicine, Psychiatry, Neurology, Radiology, General Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Urology, Emergency Medicine, and Medical Genetics.
It is far beyond the scope of this chapter to review every autonomic disorder and the various tests used in evaluation. The interested reader is directed to several excellent texts on the subject (80,87-90). It is important to note that any drugs the patient is taking that could produce hypotension should be identified (see Table 6). This includes not only pharmaceuticals, but over-the-counter medications and herbal remedies as
In the modern era, cancer is a common lethal disease. It was estimated that in 2003 over 650,000 new cases of female cancer were diagnosed in the United States. An encouraging fact is that during the last three decades, a tremendous improvement in the success rates of cancer treatments has resulted in a steady increase in the survival rates. Although the agents used for treatment of many types of cancer are successful in up to 95 of patients, they unfortunately carry a considerable risk of causing the loss of future fertility potential. Because many cancer patients are in the early reproductive age group, they would like to have the option to preserve their fertility potential to allow them to lead a future normal, healthy life. Mature
This inevitably means that the right to informed consent and the right to confidentiality are important moral principles for a good health record system. Patients should exercise as much choice over the content and movement of their health records as is consistent with good clinical care and the lack of serious harm to others. Records should be created, processed and managed in ways that optimally guarantee the confidentiality of their contents and legitimate control by patients in how they are used. The communication of health record information to third parties should take place only with patient consent unless emergency circumstances dictate that implied consent can safely be assumed. Around the globe these principles are progressively becoming enshrined in national data protection legislation.
We do as yet not have a clear understanding of what can plausibly count as treatment and what cannot. That poses problems of a primarily conceptual nature and highlights several other semantic fields whose boundaries are also not very clearly defined, such as those of health and disease . But even before approaching these questions, one encounters another problem with a clear-cut distinction in the dualistic scheme of treatment and enhancement It does not seem to do justice to strategies of prevention. Vaccination provides us with a particularly clear example of preventive medicine, but practices of prescribing and taking statins to reduce the likelihood of stroke and myocardial infarction, and other such preventive strategies could be cited as well. Nobody doubts that vaccination, and similar preventive measures of the said kind, are a sensible and legitimate part of medicine and medical research. On the other hand, they cannot properly be labeled treatments , not even anticipated...
In this method, hypnotic age progression techniques are utilized as described by Yapko (1984, 1986), Erickson (1985), Frederick and Phillips (1992), and Torem (1992). Here, a discussion is held with a patient about a desired future image the patient would be interested in as representing her full recovery and reaching an ideal stage regarding personal goals, as well as body image and a state of healthy living. This is particularly important with a developing adolescent patient who is in the process of change and is generally struggling with the question of 'Who shall I become ' The patient is guided into a state of self-hypnotic trance and suggestions are structured as with the following example
Another neurosurgical transmission of CJD was reported in which the primary case, a 59 year-old woman, previously in apparent good health, began to feel tired and stopped working 17 . Soon after, she fell down a staircase at home. She was admitted to the hospital and electroencephalogram results were suggestive of CJD. In the course of testing, she was referred to the neurosurgery department and underwent a right frontal cortical biopsy, which confirmed the diagnosis. Her condition rapidly degenerated and she died two months after the first recorded symptom. The secondary patient was admitted for a severe headache following head trauma, also from a fall down stairs. He underwent a left fronto-temporal trephination followed by biopsy in the same operating room as the primary case, 3 days later. There were three sets of surgical instruments in the operating room used for this procedure, one of which had been used on the primary CJD patient a few days earlier. After washing with soap,...
The study of older schizophrenic persons in New York City cited previously found that despite equal or lower prevalence rates of physical disorders among schizophrenic persons compared with older community persons, self-reported health differed between the two aging samples (C. I. Cohen, unpublished data). When the entire schizophrenic sample was examined, the percentage reporting excellent good health was 38 , compared with 54 of community persons. In a multivariate analysis, only activity limitations and depression were significant predictors of negative self-health ratings among older schizophrenic persons. Compared with the general older community sample, older schizophrenic persons had higher scores on the scales for depression (7.5 vs. 5.5) and activity limitations (6.0 vs. 5.0), although it is worth noting that scores on the activity scale can be affected by limitations due to mental as well as physical causes. Thus, the results of the multivariate analysis indicate that...
L-arginine is commonly sold in health food specialty shops as a supplement capable of improving vascular health and sexual function in men. The herb may be beneficial in improving health in individuals with congestive heart failure, peripheral artery disease, angina, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The herb appears to increase nitric oxide concentrations. Abnormalities of the vascular endothelial cells may cause vasoconstriction, inflammation, and thrombolytic activity. These abnormalities are partially attributable to degradation of nitric oxide. L-arginine's ability to increase nitric oxide is the basis for its effectiveness in improving some vascular disease states. Oral doses of 9 to 30 g per day are well tolerated. No adverse reactions were reported in those taking 9 g d. Higher doses may cause nausea and mild diarrhea. L-arginine may exacerbate sickle cell crisis and should be used with caution in those with sickle cell anemia.
Compared to open surgery, endovascular repair causes less physiological derangement 12,13 , perioperative mortality, perioperative morbidity, pain, and debility. These benefits are clearest in a patient whose large aneurysm precludes observation, and whose poor health precludes open surgery. The role of endovascular repair is less clear in a patient with a small aneurysm and good health, for whom the benefits depend on long life expectancy, durable protection from risk of rupture, and a low rate of late complications. As endovascular technique and technology have evolved, these factors have changed, and so have attitudes towards the respective roles of surgical and endovascular aneurysm repair 14,15 .
Warfarin, a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, has the potential to interact with many herbal remedies. For example, warfarin should not be combined with any of the following herbs because they may have additive or synergistic activity and increase the risk for bleeding celery, chamomile, clove, dong quai, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, green tea, onion, passion flower, red clover, St. John's wort, and tumeric. Any herbal remedy should be used with caution in patients taking warfarin.
Expensive and invasive than other forms of testing facilitating a more efficient use of medical resources while improving health care. This becomes clear when we look at the use of diagnostic tests in the clinic. The measurement of cholesterol, for example, is so inexpensive and noninvasive that many people are tested twice a year in their entire life. This results in early detection of a problem and early treatment reducing the risk of disease resulting from high cholesterol.
With few exceptions, the patient recovers from the primary (seroconversion) illness within 2-3 weeks, and the majority go on to enjoy at least 5 years of relatively good health. PGL, otherwise known as lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS), may or may not become apparent toward the end of this period but does not have any clear prognostic relevance. Reflecting the polyclonal activation of the immune system, autoimmune conditions may occur during this period. They include the Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic demyelinat-ing neuropathy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, Reiter's syndrome, polymyositis, cranial nerve palsy, and Sjogren's syndrome.
An examination of the medical literature in the aggregate for evidence of improvement of the patient's health-related quality of life following total hip arthroplasty was conducted by Ethgen et al. 8 . This examination included studies published in French or English during January 1980-June 2003 that utilized a prospective cohort study design and what the authors considered to be a validated self-reported quality of life measurement tool. The authors included 32 studies of both total hip and knee arthroplasty and 26 studies limited to total hip arthroplasty. They concluded that total hip arthroplasty was highly successful in improving health-related quality of life parameters. The failure of age to present a barrier to favorable total hip arthroplasty outcomes was another noteworthy conclusion.
A 38-year-old Caucasian man recently came to the attention of his physician when he suffered the second of two bone fractures in the past year and a half. He previously was in relatively good health, was not a smoker, and used alcohol only moderately. However, his only form of exercise was cutting the lawn on weekends during the summer months. He has not required any major surgeries during his lifetime, and had only minor bouts of the typical childhood illnesses. However, at age eight he was diagnosed with asthma after he suffered severe respiratory problems during a baseball game on a hot summer day. He has been treated ever since with a daily tablet of a synthetic glucocorticoid and the occasional use of an inhaler when needed to relieve acute symptoms of the disease. 2. Because the patient is young and has a relatively healthy lifestyle, the most probable cause of his osteoporosis is his 30-year history of treatment with glucocorticoids for asthma. Glucocorticoids increase bone...
Intestinal obstruction most commonly occurs in patients with Crohn's disease. Small bowel obstruction is the most common complication requiring surgical correction in Crohn's disease and affects 35-54 of patients 37, 38 . It is important to rule out a malignancy whenever a stricture, especially colonic, is present. The initial management of intestinal obstruction in Crohn's disease is medical therapy. Obstruction that is unresponsive to medical treatment requires resection or possible strictureplasty 39 . Septic problems or phlegmon, a stricture close to a planned resection and extensive ulceration or bleeding are contraindications for strictureplasty. Ileocecal resection is a very satisfactory procedure since most patients enjoy longstanding good health after this procedure. Don't operate until a patient gets a complication from Crohn's disease but don't wait for a complication to become further complicated 40 . Extended resection margins confer no advantage to patients in reducing...
The subjects were 111 community-living older adults who participated in the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS). (For a detailed description of this project and of the subjects, see Hultsch, Hertzog, Dixon & Small, 1998.) They were between 67 and 93 years of age, highly educated, and generally in good health. Brief descriptive data on the subjects are provided in table 3. As indicated by the table, the subjects were arranged into two groups, one consisting of young-old adults (67-74) and the other of old-old adults (75-93). c. Participants used a 5-point scale to rate their health relative to ''perfect health'' (0 very good to 4 very poor). c. Participants used a 5-point scale to rate their health relative to ''perfect health'' (0 very good to 4 very poor).
The Complete Guide to Herbal Medicines. Springhouse, Pa. Springhouse, 2000. Accessible information available on more than three hundred herbal medicines. Herrick, James W., and Dean R. Snow, eds. Iroquois Medical Botany. Syracuse, N.Y. Syracuse University Press, 1997. A fascinating look at one Native American body of knowledge of herbal medicines. Important not only for those interested in herbal medicine but also for those studying American Indian cosmology as it relates to material culture. Illustrated, with references, index.
Even though breast feeding must remain the gold-standard and the common recommendation, supplementing infant formulas with inulin-type fructans and other prebiotics is a promising approach that is likely to help in improving the intestinal health and well-being of babies who are not breast-fed at all, breast-fed only for a short period, or are mixed-fed. As compared to the probiotics, the prebiotics stimulate the growth of indigenous bacteria (especially indigenous bifidobacteria strains) and are thus expected to maintain and favor a more natural and physiological microflora, creating the conditions for an optimum crosstalk between the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic worlds that live in symbiosis in the intestine. An optimum crosstalk situation such as this is more and more recognized as a condition for a healthy development during early life which contributes to good health throughout life.
He was born into a family of herbal physicians. He studied the original Ayurvedic texts and acquired first-hand knowledge of the cultivation and processing of herbs and their usage even before going to college. He has also been included among the directors of Dabur Ayurvedic Specialities Ltd., a herbal major in India. This reference work is the outcome of ten years of in-depth study and literary research of more than 2000 plant sources of Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of Indian medicine. By the same author East and West integrative 400 detailed monographs on Indian medicinal plants in contemporary setup Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants Indian Herbal Remedies. Published by Springer.
Tomorrow's medicine is today's research. That is why the question of how we allocate resources to research is at least as important as the question of how we allocate resources to health care itself. But this is not a question that you will find has been the focus of much ethical discussion. Most discussion about the ethics of medical research addresses the question of how research should be regulated. Indeed, medical research is in many ways much more strictly regulated than medical practice. From a perusal of the innumerable guidelines on medical research you could be forgiven for thinking that medical research, like smoking, must be bad for your health that in a liberal society, since it cannot be altogether banned, strict regulation is needed to minimize the harm that it can do. 24. From reading the many guidelines you might think that medical research, like smoking, must be bad for your health. 24. From reading the many guidelines you might think that medical research, like...
Two types of chamomile (camomile) are commonly employed in herbal medicine, Roman chamomile Chamaemelum nobile (formerly Anthemis nobilis) (Compositae Asteraceae), and German chamomile Matricaria chamomilla (Chamomilla recutica) (Compositae Asteraceae). German chamomile, an annual plant, is the more important commercially, and is often called matricaria to distinguish it from the perennial Roman chamomile. Both plants are cultivated
Accepted Sources Based on Appendix of Ayurvedic Formulary of India, 2003. Other sources Based on Ayurvedic Drugs and their Plant Sources, V V Sivarajan and Indira Balachandran, 1994 Formulary of Ayurvedic Medicines, IMPCOPS, Chennai, 1987 K. Vasude-van Nair et al., Ancient Sc Life, 5(1) 49-53,1985 Plants ofBhava Prakash and Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda, Rashtriya Ayurveda Vidyapeeth, 1999,1998.
A.R., a 62-year-old man, was admitted to the ER with right hemiplegia and aphasia. He had a history of hypertension and recent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), yet was in good health when he experienced a sudden onset of right-sided weakness. He arrived in the ER via ambulance within 15 minutes of onset and was received by a member of the hospital's stroke team. He had a rapid general assessment and neuro exam, including a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) rating, to determine his candidacy for fibrinolytic therapy. d. treats with natural and herbal medicine
Ayurvedic Varshaabhu, Vrshchira, Vishakharparikaa, Shilaatikaa, Shothaghni, Kshdra. Wrongly equated with Shveta-punarnavaa or Rakta-punarnavaa. Varshaabhu and Punarnavaa are two different herbs. T. portulacastrum is a rainy season annual. Rakta-punarnavaa is equated with Boerhavia diffusa, Shveta-punarnavaa with white-flowered species, B. erecta L. (B. punarnava). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia ofIn-dia recommends the dried root in diseases of the liver and spleen, anaemia and oedema.
A.Y., a gravida 2, para 1 at 39 weeks gestation, had been in active labor for several hours, fully effaced and dilated, yet unable to progress. She had had an uneventful pregnancy with good health, moderate weight gain, good fetal heart sounds, and no signs or symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension. X-ray pelvimetry revealed CPD with the fetus in right occiput posterior position. Changes in fetal heart rate indicated fetal distress. A.Y. was transported to the OR for emergency C-section under spinal anesthesia.
The A to Z guide to healing herbal remedies. New York Random House Value Publishing. Graedon, J., and T. Graedon. 2001. The people's pharmacy guide to home and herbal remedies. New York St. Martin's Press. Vogel, V. J. 1990. American Indian medicine. Norman, OK University of Oklahoma Press.
Oral-motor and feeding difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. It is generally helpful to have an interdisciplinary feeding evaluation performed to establish an appropriate feeding plan that optimizes diet intake as well as feeding skill development. Ideally, the team should consist of the following clinicians nutritionist, speech therapist, occupational therapist, physical therapist, behavioral management specialist, developmental pediatrician, nurse. Some children with DD may require support with supplemental tube feedings to meet their fluid and nutrient needs for adequate growth and good health. Coordination of tube feeding and oral feeding to maintain oral motor skills while insuring good growth and health is recommended, provided there are no contraindications to oral feeding, such as aspiration. Regular reassessment of the feeding plan is essential as the child grows and develops.
Improve human form or functioning beyond what is necessary to sustain or restore good health (Parens 1995a Juengst 1998). This concept will also require us to lead the ethical discussion of the concept of enhancement on at least two different levels the individual level (including the ethics of self-improvement), and the societal level (including the goals of medicine and the goals of society).
Subsequent slicing, by decreasing neuronal excitability and lowering neurotransmitter release. As a practical matter, it is important to remove the brain from the animal and get it into the chilled cutting solution as quickly as possible in order to be able to get healthy slices. The current record in my lab is held by Coleen Atkins, who in her prime could get the brain out of a rat and into cutting solution in 15 seconds.
During training experience can he obtained from undertaking a thorough general symptom inquiry, asking the patient the 'cardinal' symptoms relevant to each system (see Table LI I), Otherwise, ii is useful to start with an open inquiry such as 'what olher symptoms have you noticed or 'tell me about your health in general' (i.e. not have you any other symptoms' '). A positive response prccipitatcs an examination of the system cluster - and its layers - as undertaken for the presenting complaint, but usually in less detail.
The mission of health care services today is not only to cure disease, restore function, and alleviate ailment, but also to prevent disease and promote health. After World War II the 'academic world' tried to reorient the concept of health by broadening its definition. The net result of these efforts was
Animal health, and the effects of global climate change on human health. He was widely published. Bob was co-editor, along with Joshua Lederberg, of the seminal publication, Emerging Infections Microbial Threats to Health in the United States . He also was a frequent contributor to textbooks on infectious diseases, virology, medicine and public health. At UTMB, Bob had a joint appointment in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, and he lectured regularly there to graduate students, residents and fellows. It is very appropriate that the newly designated Professorship in his honor at UTMB will be supported jointly by the Departments of Pathology and of Preventive Medicine and Community Health. Bob believed deeply in public health, and he was always an advocate for its inclusion within medical training and practice. In addition, the American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene has established the Robert E. Shope, M.D. Fellowship in Infectious Diseases, which...
The polyunsaturated fatty acids and indicated that mammals lack the A12 and A15-desaturases. They cannot, therefore, synthesize linoleic or a-linolenic acids. It turns out, however, that these poly-unsaturated fatty acids are absolutely necessary for the maintenance of growth, reproduction and good health and must, therefore, be obtained in the diet from plant foods. They are called essential fatty acids and their role in nutrition and health will be described in detail in Section 4.2.3. They are precursors of a variety of oxygenated 20C fatty acids with potent biological activities now generally known collectively as the eicosanoids.
The treatment of elderly persons with chronic HBV is largely supportive. Although a-interferon shows evidence of suppressing viral replication and may decrease the risk of progression to cirrhosis or cancer, side effects of therapy increase with advancing age (60). Therapy should be reserved for patients in overall good health except for their liver disease and who have evidence of active viral replication. Lamivudine, a nucleoside analogue, holds promise as a new anti-HBV agent.
The effect of this selection for hire tends to diminish over time, presumably because the good health that was required at the time of hire has faded. Those chosen to be fit have become less fit relative to their peers, even though there is typically still some level of selectivity for sustained employment (Checkoway et al., 1989). Those who leave work before retirement age show evidence of selectively unfavorable mortality, for example, in comparison to those who sustain their employment. By elucidating the pattern and extent of the healthy worker effect, our understanding of the phenomenon has markedly increased and therefore our ability to recognize and control its effects has been greatly enhanced. It is difficult to identify any other form of selection bias that is so well understood because addressing the healthy worker effect over the past 30 years has been fundamental to progress in studies of occupational disease. This elucidation of the
23.17 Bright Bills Signal Good Health (a) This experiment demonstrated that bright bill color in the male zebra finch does indeed indicate a healthy individual. (b) Female zebra finches (the bird below) preferentially choose mates with the brightest bill color thus choosing the healthiest males.
The decline in cardiovascular mortality, including the steep rise and fall in CHD mortality, indicates that the major cause of mortality is controllable. Whether attributable more to beneficial changes in disease-promoting lifestyle or to better medical care of those already afflicted, it is clear that cardiovascular disease in most patients is not an inevitable burden of aging or genetic makeup. Although the causes of the decline in cardiovascular mortality are uncertain, the decline has been substantial, sustained, and real. The decline has coincided with increased efforts to achieve healthier living habits and with improvements in the ambient burden of cardiovascular risk factors. Department of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Evans Department of Clinical Research, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, and the Framingham Heart Study. Framingham Study research is supported by NIH NHLBI Contract N01-HC-38038 and the Visiting Scientist Program that is...
And now that you imagine yourself beginning to lose weight, you may become more and more aware of all the positive consequences for you of losing weight. Now that you have started to respect your body and protect it through balanced eating, you may begin to feel healthier in your body, you can buy new clothes that fit well and make you feel more attractive. Maybe you notice how cycling has become easier and easier, just as if your cycling has become automatic. You may start to gain more self-confidence, since people give you more and more positive comments And this exercise may help you to become even more and more aware of all the positive future consequences of continued balanced eating and physical exercise Your willpower to reach your goal can become even stronger.
Only the natural state that we are interested in but the pathological state as well. We need to understand function and mutations relevant to the pathological state. The output is the genetic footprint. Disease phenotype is what we are interested in. It has implications for diagnostics as well as for drug discovery, and it has implications down the road for preventive medicine and gene therapy.
One is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of widely used natural products, such as herbal remedies and nutritional and food supplements. Although the scientific study of CAM is relatively new, the Center is dedicated to developing programs and encouraging scientists to investigate CAM treatments that show promise. The NCCAM budget has steadily grown from 2 million in 1993 to more than 68.7 million in 2000. This funding increase reflects the public's interest and need for CAM information that is based on rigorous scientific research.
Living a healthy life may mean having to make big and difficult changes, and stopping some of the things you enjoy some of these (for example smoking and drinking alcohol) you may believe are helping you to cope with stress. The things that will work, making you feel better, and reducing your stress and your risk of developing coronary heart disease are
Young women should do everything they can to reduce their risk of getting coronary heart disease and make sure that they stop or do not start smoking that their blood pressure is normal that they do not have diabetes or high cholesterol that they are slim and fit. They should adopt good habits when they are young. After the menopause, women should be especially careful and have a healthy lifestyle.
A comprehensive program to help prevent osteoporosis includes a balanced diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, regular weight-bearing exercise, a healthy lifestyle with no smoking or excessive alcohol use, and bone density testing and medication when appropriate. Although at present there is no cure for osteoporosis, there are five FDA-approved medications to either prevent or treat the disease in women estrogens alendronate and risedronate (both bis-phosphonates) calcitonin and raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Although 20 of all osteoporosis cases occur in men, only alendronate and risedronate are currently FDA approved for use in men and only for cases of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Testosterone replacement therapy is often helpful in a man with a low testosterone level.
Good health records are not just a scattered accumulation of health-related data about individuals. Entries are made as formal contributions to a growing and evolving story, through which the authors are accountable for healthcare actions performed or not performed. At any point in time a patient's health record provides the information basis against which new findings are interpreted, and its integrity, completeness and accessibility are of paramount importance. EHR systems need to offer a flexible framework for recording the consultation process, and accommodate the individuality of the clinician as well as the patient. When migrating to electronic health records, it is important to acknowledge how readily the tremendous richness of a clinical dialogue can be expressed on paper (see Figure 7-2).
Derived agents were never surpassed and remain as valued medicines to this day. Natural drugs derived from microorganisms have a much shorter history, and their major impact on medicine goes back only about 60 years to the introduction of the antibiotic penicillin. Microbially produced antibiotics now account for a very high proportion of the drugs commonly prescribed. There is currently a renewed interest in pharmacologically active natural products, be they from plants, microorganisms, or animals, in the continued search for new drugs, particularly for disease states where our present range of drugs is less effective than we would wish. Herbal remedies are also enjoying a revival as many sufferers turn away from modern drugs and embrace 'complementary medicine'.
It is important to obtain full details of the prescribed drugs and any olher medications the patient may be taking. These include over-the-counter remedies and alternative medicine treatments, particularly herbal remedies, laxatives, analgesics and vitamin mineral supplements. The name of each drug, the dose, dosage regime and duration of treatment should be noted, along with significant side-effects. In hospital, not uncommonly, the patient may not know the name of a drug and may have omitted lo bring the medication. In such circumstances the patient's general practice should be contacted to obtain the details. This is also advisable when douht arises about the accuracy of the information - for instance when the account seems unlikely or potentially hazardous. A drug addict may be intentionally misleading the doctor ahout his or her regular supply.
Although the prospect of effecting change in the United States health care delivery systems engenders a certain amount of nihilism, a realistic approach to improving health for patients with schizophrenia must be determined by utilizing data from research initiatives (Le Fevre 2001). Only after careful assessment of feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and outcomes should certain approaches be abandoned. To specifically assess the impact of integrating medical and psychiatric care, investigators at the VA Healthcare System in West Haven, Connecticut, performed a 12-month prospective randomized study examining health delivery and outcomes for two groups of patients with serious mental disorders those who received medical care as usual through the general medical clinics (n 61) and those assigned to an integrated psychiatric and medical clinic (n 59) (Druss et al. 2001b). Patients with schizophrenia made up 22.0 of the integrated-care group and 19.7 of the usual-care cohort. The primary...
First, the patient must perceive the positive aspects of the care he or she is receiving through an understanding of the procedures and how they will enhance his or her enjoyment of life. The relief of pain and the prevention of disease are joys in themselves. Second, the diagnostic and therapeutic milieu must promote health rather than aggravate illness and cause anxiety. The environment must be clean,
HLA-matched-sibling stem cell transplantation patients have long-term survival of about 80 , whereas unrelated or partially matched related transplants yield survivals under 20 . Favorable transplantation outcomes are most likely if the patient is in good health at the time of HSCT without complications of iron overload and allosensitization. Improvements in supportive care, graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and infection control have resulted in a marked decrease in HLA-matched related HSCT transplant-related morbidity and mortality. Sibling HSCT is recommended for young DBA patients, prior to development of significant allosensitization or iron overload, when there is an available HLA-matched related donor.
The role of laboratory parameters is limited, as they are undermined by poor reliability of values during pregnancy. Constant physiological modification, connected with hemodilution, is necessary for some parameters that do not present suitable specificity to monitor pregnant women with IBD. These physiological changes include reduction of haemoglobin of about 1 g dl, reduction of blood iron level, a two- to three-fold increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), reduction of about 1 g dl of blood albumin and an increase of alkaline phosphatase of about 1.5 . As these parameters may be analogously modified even during the early stages of IBD relapse, they should not be used as diagnostic tools during pregnancy to avoid false positivities, or at least they should always be set in a wider clinical evaluation. For example, if a pregnant patient with CD shows good health conditions but her hematocrit decreased and her ESR increased, she probably is in a quiescent stage of the disease...
TeleNegatoscope, one of the deliverables of the Krakow Centre for Telemedicine and Preventive Medicine (KCT) project, is a tool for interactive medical consultations 1 . The name of the tool is connected with its initial aim remote access to a negatoscope but it quickly turned out that TeleNegatoscope may be successfully used to transfer not just radiological images, but also other medical documentation, such as ECGs, scanned paper forms, etc. (see Figure 3-6).
The commercially important species I. verum has often been confused with I. anisatum, which is toxic and potentially fatal if consumed. This confusion is particularly problematic because I. anisatum has been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and both species are therefore retailed commercially in Asia. The confusion is largely the result of similarities between the fruits, as the flowers are highly distinctive I. verum possesses flowers with rounded pink, red or purple tepals (Figure 2.4), whereas I. anisatum possesses elongated white or yellow tepals (Figure 2.3). Small (1996) outlined the confused use of vernacular names for the two species I. verum is variously called star anise, Chinese anise, and China star anise in the literature, whereas I. anisatum is called star anise, Chinese anise, Japanese anise, and Japanese star anise. Although the scientific nomenclature is clearly preferable because it is unambiguous, the use of the vernacular name star anise for fruits of...
Kava is a popular herbal remedy used to relieve stress, anxiety, and tension promote sleep and provide relief from menstrual symptoms. Although the FDA has not made a determination about the ability of kava dietary supplements to provide such benefits, it has issued an alert indicating that the use of kava may cause liver damage. Because kava-containingproducts have been associated with liver-related injuries (eg, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure), the safest use of kava is to take the herb occasionally for episodes of anxiety, rather than on a daily basis. It is important that individuals who use a kava-containing dietary supplement and experience signs of liver disease immediately consult their primary health care provider. Symptoms of liver disease includejaundice, urine with a brownish discoloration, nausea, vomiting, light-colored stools, weakness, and loss of appetite. Adverse effects experienced with the use of dietary supplements should be reported to the FDA's MedWatch...
Most of the historical information on herbs deals more directly with the medicinal properties of the plants. The first book available to the Europeans was De materia medica written by Pedanius Dios-corides, a Greek physician, in 100 c.E. This work on herbal medicine was so important that it was one of the first books printed after the printing press was developed. De materia medica continued to be the authoritative reference on the use of herbs in medicine for sixteen centuries. Another early work on medicinal herbs is Pen-ts'ao (The Great Herbal), a sixteenth century Chinese pharmacopoeia, attributed to Li Shih-chen, which lists more than eighteen hundred plants and medical preparations. The use of herbs as medicines began to de cline in the seventeenth century as new ways of treating illnesses developed, but herbal remedies continue even today in natural and homeopathic medicines.
Various herbs and supplements, such as hawthorn extracts, garlic, onion, ginkgo biloba, vitamin E, and aspirin, may be used by herbalists for hypertension. Although these substances may lower blood pressure in some individuals, their use is not recommended because the effect is slight and usually too gentle to affect moderate to severe hypertension. However, several studies have demonstrated that hypertensive patients may benefit from daily doses of calcium (800 mg) or magnesium (300 mg). Patients should consult the primary health care provider before taking any herbal remedy.
In people, protozoa cause numerous infections, generally limited to four sites in the body the intestines, the genital tract, the bloodstream and tissues, and the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Not all parasitic protozoa cause death in humans, but they are responsible for untold misery in wide areas of the world, especially underdeveloped countries where preventive medicine is unknown and too expensive for these societies to employ.
AFI The Ayurvedic Formulary of India Revised English Edition API The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume British Herbal Ed. Bradley PR., published by British Herbal Medicine British Herbal Published by British Herbal Medicine Association, CCRAS Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New Delhi. Standard Nomenclature of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Lucknow. Dictionary of Indian Medicinal Plants, Akhtar Husain et al., 1992. PDR PDR for Herbal Medicines, Third Edition, 2005,
In a screening programme of Indian medicinal plants, extracts from the roots of Coleus forskohlii (Labiatae Lamiaceae) were discovered to lower blood pressure and have cardioactive properties. This led to the isolation of the diterpene forskolin ( coleonol) (Figure 5.51) as the active principle in yields of about 0.1 . Forskolin has been shown to exert its effects by direct stimulation of adenylate cyclase, and has become a valuable pharmacological tool in the study of this enzyme and its functions. It has shown promising potential for the treatment of glaucoma, congestive heart failure, hypertension, and bronchial asthma, though drug use is limited by poor water-solubility, and derivatives or analogues will need to be developed.
Several months after the accident, D.S. was still experiencing some discomfort, and she decided to investigate alternative therapies. She made an appointment with a naturist practitioner who specialized in homeopathy and herbal medicine. Before her appointment, she browsed in the Nutra-Medica Shop, which carried nutritional supplements, vitamin and mineral products, homeopathic remedies, and herbal formulas. She planned to ask the therapist about some of the products that she saw there, which included remedies with the trade names Pneumogen, Arthogesia-Plus, Renovite, Nephrostat, and Hematone.
Feverfew is a traditional herbal remedy for the relief of arthritis, migraine, toothache, and menstrual difficulties. The plant is a perennial, strongly aromatic herb of the Compositae Asteraceae family, and has been classified variously as Tanacetum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Leucanthemum parthenium, or Pyrethrum parthenium, the former name being currently favoured. Studies have confirmed that feverfew is an effective prophylactic treatment in about 70 of migraine sufferers. It reduces the frequency of attacks, the vomiting associated with attacks, and the severity of attacks. The herb has been shown to inhibit blood platelet aggregation, the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) from platelets, the release of histamine from mast cells, and the production of prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. Of a range of sesquiterpene lactones of the germacrane and guianane groups characterized in the leaf material, the principal constituent and major active component is...
Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Jackson, MS Cardinal Glennon Memorial Hospital for Children. PKU Clinic, St. Louis, MO Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO Children's Mercy Hospital, Genetic Counseling Center, Kansas City, MO See Oregon, Colorado, Utah Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center. Metabolic Diseases Clinic, Omaha, NE Nevada Univ. of Nevada School of Medicine. Nevada
Plus one or two C2 units from malonyl-CoA. The short poly- -keto chain frequently cyclizes to form a lactone derivative (compare triacetic acid lac-tone, page 62). Thus, Figure 4.37 shows the proposed derivation of yangonin via cyclization of the di-enol tautomer of the polyketide formed from 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and two malonyl-CoA extender units. Two methylation reactions complete the sequence. Yangonin and a series of related structures form the active principles of kava root (Piper methysticum Piperaceae), a herbal remedy popular for its anxiolytic activity.
Ayurvedic Krishna jiraka, Jiraa, Kaaravi, Asita Jiraka, Kaashmira-jiraka, Prithvikaa, Upakunchikaa, Sugandha Udgaar, Shodhana. Key application Seed oil in dyspeptic problems, such as mild, sapstic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, bloating and fullness. (German Commission E, ESCOP, The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia.) The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recommended the seed in chronic fevers.
The body is the person's most prized possession and deserves the respect of good health. With the new teeth (dentures) the face looks well. See how people respond warmly to the new smile. The new teeth make it possible to eat well, to be able to swallow naturally, to aid in digestion. Remember that properly chewed and digested food is necessary for life itself.
Some members of the genus Equisetum have been found useful in folk and herbal medicine. Both Equisetum arvense and Equisetum robustum are known to exert diuretic effects. Poultices of crushed sterile stems can be applied to wounds to stop bleeding. In Ukraine, decoctions of Equisetum heleocharis have been used for this purpose. Boiling the stems yields a liquid extract that can be used as a mouthwash. There is a possibility that horsetail has some antibiotic properties. Roots were often given to teething babies, and Equisetum tea was often used to treat tubercular lung lesions.
E.g., Alzheimer's, Huntington's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease), and Parkinson's disease, and various dementias. Atherosclerosis and diabetes also have been shown to have major oxidative-stress components. Antioxidants can play a significant role in preventing the oxidant damage to cells and tissue. By increasing the entire spectrum of antioxidants we can raise our level of protection against the damaging consequences of oxidants over time. Perhaps if we were to increase the entire group of antioxidants, we could slow the ravages of time and live healthier lives for a longer time. However, it would take continuous treatment over a lifetime to find out, and no such experiment has been reported in humans, simply because of the constraints of time itself. We are not good at making overview observations over long periods of time, but it seems intuitively obvious that we need to protect ourselves from the ravages of oxidative stress continuously. Because we tend to...
Clinical outcome of patients with IC varies. IC and the indeterminate forms probable UC have an absolutely similar outcome to UC. Out of the ten patients with sure CD, five were submitted to demolition of the reservoir for disease recurrence. The other five are in good health although one reported recurrent episodes of pouchitis. Finally, patients with IC probable CD have an acceptable outcome although the incidence of pouchitis seems to be higher. Dayton et al. 41 reported that patients with IC probable CD present a significantly higher risk of pouch excision compared with those with true IC and IC probable UC . Similarly, Tekkis et al. 46 found an increased risk of failure in CD or IC favouring CD patients (57.5 vs 11.5 in UC or IC favouring UC).
Interestingly it has been noted that Indian vegetarians have a low incidence of Parkinson's disease in comparison with the Indian meat eaters, the Parsees. The reason for this difference has been suggested as the inhibition of iron absorption by the polyphenols that are present in high amounts in Indian spices. Further long-term studies of people with low iron status throughout their life time may give an indication as to whether decreasing iron intake may be beneficial in preventing the deposition of iron in the brain during the life time of an individual.
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