1. Jolly WA, Ritchie WT. Auricular flutter and fibrillation. Heart 1911;2:177-221.

2. Lewis T. Observations upon flutter and fibrillation. I. The regularity of clinical auricular flutter. Heart 1920;7:127-130.

3. Lewis T, Feil HS, Stroud WD. Observations upon flutter and fibrillation. II. The nature of auricular flutter. Heart 1920;7:191-245.

4. Lewis T, Drury AN, Iliescu CC. A demonstration of circus movement in clinical flutter of the auricles. Heart 1921;8:341-357.

5. Mary-Rabine L, Mahaux V, Waleffe A, Kulbertus H. Atrial flutter: historical background. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1997;8:353-358.

6. Puech P, Latour H, Grolleau R. Le flutter et ses limites. Arch Mal Coeur 1970;61:116-144.

7. Rosenblueth A, Garcia-Ramos J. Studies on flutter and fibrillation. II. The influence of artificial obstacles on experimental auricular flutter. Am Heart J 1947;33:677-684.

8. Frame LH, Page RI, Hoffman BF. Atrial reentry around an anatomic barrier with a partially refractory excitable gap: a canine model of atrial flutter. Circ Res 1986;58:495-511.

9. Frame L, Page R, Boyden P, et al. Circus movement in the canine atrium around the tricuspid ring during experimental atrial flutter and during reentry in vitro. Circulation 1987;76:1155-1175.

10. Boineau JP, Schuessler RB, Mooney CR, et al. Natural and evoked atrial flutter due to circus movement in dogs. Am J Cardiol 1980;45:1167-1181.

11. Allessie MA, Lammers WJEP, Bonke FIM, et al. Intra-atrial reentry as a mechanism for atrial flutter induced by actylcholine and rapid pacing in the dog. Circulation 1984;70:123-135.

12. Boyden PA. Activation sequence during atrial flutter in dogs with surgically induced right atrial enlargement. I. Observations during sustained rhythms. Circ Res 1988;62:596-608.

13. Feld GK, Shahandeh RF. Activation patterns in experienced canine atrial flutter produced by right atrial crush injury. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:441-451.

14. Klein GJ, Guiraudon GM, Sharma AD, et al. Demonstration of macroreentry and feasibility of operative therapy in the common type of atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:587-591.

15. Cosio FG, Lopez-Gil M, Goicolea A, et al. Electrophysiologic studies in atrial flutter. Clin Cardiol 1992;15:667-673.

16. Cosio FG, Arribas F, Palacios J, et al. Fragmented electrograms and continuous electrical activity in atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1986;57:1309-1314.

17. Waldo AL, Mclean WAH, Karp RB, et al. Entrainment and interruption of atrial flutter with atrial pacing: studies in man following open heart surgery. Circulation 1977;56:737-745.

18. Nakagawa H, Lazzara R, Khastgir T, et al. Role of the tricuspid annulus and the eustachian valve/ ridge on atrial flutter. Circulation 1996;94(3):407-424.

19. Olgin JE, Kalman JM, Fitzpatrick AP, et al. Role of right atrial endocardial structures as barriers to conduction during human type I atrial flutter. Circulation 1995;92(7):1839-1848.

20. Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Saxon LA, et al. Activation and entrainment mapping defines the tricuspid annulus as the anterior barrier in typical atrial flutter. Circulation 1996;94(3):398-406.

21. Olshansky B, Okumura K, Hess PG, Waldo AL. Demonstration of an area of slow conduction in human atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;16:1639-1648.

22. Olshanski B, Okumura K, Henthorn RW, Waldo AL. Characterization of double potentials in human atrial flutter: studies during transient entrainment. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;15:833-841.

23. Feld GK, Fleck RP, Chen PS, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of human type I atrial flutter: identification of a critical zone in the reentrant circuit by endocardial mapping techniques. Circulation 1992;86:1233-1240.

24. Cosio FG, Arribas F, Barbero JM, et al. Validation of double spike electrograms as markers of conduction delay or block in atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:755-780.

25. Uribe W, Vidaillet H, Granada J, et al. Incidence and cause of death among patients with atrial flutter in the general population. Circulation 1996;94(Suppl 8):2269.

26. Garson A Jr, Bink-Boelkens M, Hesslein PS, et al. Atrial flutter in the young: a collaborative study of 380 cases. J Am Coll Cardiol 1990;6:871-878.

27. Waldo AL. Clinical evaluation in therapy of patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter. Cardiol Clin Supraventricular Tachycardia 1990;8:479.

28. VanHare GF, Lesh MD, Ross BA, et al. Mapping and radiofrequency ablation of intraatrial reentrant tachycardia after the Senning or Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries. Am J Cardiol 1996;77:985-991.

29. Boyden PA, Hoffman BF. The effects on atrial electrophysiology and structure of surgically induced right atrial enlargement in dogs. Circ Res 1981;49:1319-1331.

30. Lesh MD, Kalman JM. To fumble flutter or tackle "tach"? Toward updated classifiers for atrial tachyarrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:460-466.

31. London F, Howell M. Atrial flutter: 1 to 1 conduction during treatment with quinidine and digitalis. Am Heart J 1954;48:152-156.

32. Robertson CE, Miller HC. Extreme tachycardia complicating the use of disopyramide in atrial flutter. Br Heart J 1980;44:602-603.

33. Williams PL. Gray's anatomy—The anatomical basis of medicine and surgery. 38th ed. Churchill Livingstone, 1995.

34. Inoue H, Matsuo H, Takayanagi et al. Clinical and experimental studies of the effects of atrial extrastimulation and rapid pacing on atrial flutter cycle: evidence of macro-reentry with an excitable gap. Am J Cardiol 1981;48:623-630.

35. Disertori M, Inama G, Vergara G, et al. Evidence of a reentry circuit in the common type of atrial flutter in man. Circulation 1983;67:434-440.

36. Della Bella P, Marenzi G, Tondo C, et al. Usefulness of excitable gap and pattern of resettling in atrial flutter for determining reentry circuit location. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:492-497.

37. Arenal A, Almendral J, San Roman D, Delcan JL, Josephson ME. Frequency and implications of resetting and entrainment with right atrial stimulation in atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:1292-1298.

38. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Pharmacologic alterations in human type I atrial flutter cycle length and monophasic action potential duration: evidence of a fully excitable gap in the reentrant circuit. J Am Coll Cardiol 1996;27:453-461.

39. Callans DJ, Schwartzman D, Gottlieb CD, et al. Characterization of the excitable gap in human type I atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1793-1801.

40. Wells JL, MacLean WAH, James TN, et al. Characterization of atrial flutter: studies in man after open heart surgery using fixed atrial electrodes. Circulation 1979;60:665-673.

41. Kalman JM, Olgin JE, Saxon LA, et al. Electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic characterization of atypical atrial flutter in man: using activation mapping and implications of catheter ablation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1997;8:121-144.

42. Natale A, Richey M, Tomassoni GF, et al. Clinical characteristics and ablation of left sided atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33 (Suppl 2) a):116A.

43. Cheng J, Cabeen WR, Scheinman MM. Right atrial flutter due to lower loop reentry: mechanism and anatomic substrates. Circulation 1999;99(13);1700-1705.

44. Kall JG, Rubenstein DS, Kopp DE, et al. Atypical atrial flutter originating in the right atrial free wall. Circulation 2000;101:270-281.

45. Kalman JM, Van Hare GF, Olgin JE, et al. Ablation of 'incisional' reentrant atrial tachycardia complicating surgery for congenital heart disease: use of entrainment to define a critical isthmus of conduction. Circulation 1996;93:502-512.

46. Lown B, Amana Bingham R, Neuman J. A new method for terminating cardiac arrhythmias. JAMA 1962;182:548-551.

47. Castellanos A, Lemberg L, Gosselin A., et al. Evaluation of countershock treatment of atrial flutter. Arch Int Med 1965;115:426-433.

48. Frith ZG, Aberg H. Direct current cardioversion of atrial flutter. Acta Med Scand 1970;271-274.

49. Morris JJ, Kong Y, North WC, Mcintosh HD. Experience with cardioversion of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1964;14:94-100.

50. VanGelder H, Crijns HJ, VanGilst WH, et al. Prediction of uneventful cardioversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm from direct current cardioversion of chronic atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1991;68:41-46.

51. Chalasani P, Cambre S, Silverman ME. Direct current cardioversion of atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1996;77(8):658-660.

52. Crijns HJ, VanGelder IC, Tieleman RG, et al. Long term outcome of electrical cardioversion in patients with chronic atrial flutter. Heart 1997;77:56-61.

53. Pinski SL, Sgarbossa EB, Ching E, et al. A comparison of 50 J versus 100 J shocks for direct current cardioversion of atrial flutter. Am Heart J 1999;137(3):439-432.

54. Campbell RWF. Pharmacologic therapy of atrial flutter. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:1008-1012.

55. Bianconi L, Boccadamo R, Pappalardo A, et al. Effectiveness of intravenous propafenone for conversion of atrial fibrillation and flutter of recent onset. Am J Cardiol 1989;64:335-338.

56. Suttorp MJ, Kingma JH, Lie-A-Huen L, et al. Intravenous flecainide versus verapamil for conversion of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or flutter to sinus rhythm. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:693-696.

57. Vos MA, Golitsyn SR, Stangl K, et al. Superiority of ibutilide (a new class III agent) over DL-sotalol in converting atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Heart 1998;79(6):568-575.

58. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Antiarrhythmic actions of intravenous ibutilide compared with procainamide during human atrial flutter and fibrillation: electrophysiological determinants of enhanced conversion efficacy. Circulation 1997;96(12):4298-4306.

59. Foster RH, Wilde MI, Markham A. Ibutilide: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical potential in the acute management of atrial flutter and fibrillation. Drugs 1997;54(2):312-330.

60. Haft JI, Kosowsky BD, Lau SH, et al. Termination of atrial flutter by rapid electrical stimulation of the atrium. Am J Cardiol 1967;20:239-244.

61. Camm J, Ward D, Spurrell R. Response of atrial flutter to overdrive atrial pacing and intravenous disopyramide phosphate, singly and in combination. Br Heart J 1980;44:240-247.

62. Olshansky B, Okumura K, Hess PG, Henthorn RW, Waldo AL. Use of procainamide with rapid atrial pacing for successful conversion of atrial flutter to sinus rhythm. J Am Coll Cardiol 1988;11:359-364.

63. Della Bella P, Tondo C, Marenzi G, et al. Facilitating influence of disopyramide on atrial flutter termination by overdrive pacing. Am J Cardiol 1988;61:1046-1049.

64. Rosen KM, Sinno MZ, Gunnar RW, Rahimtoola SH. Failure of rapid atrial pacing in the conversion of atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1970;26:262-269.

65. Fujimoto T, Inoue T, Hidemi O, et al. The effects of class IA antiarrhythmic drug on the common type of atrial flutter in combination with pacing therapy. Jpn Circ J 1989;53:237-244.

66. Delia Bella P, Marenzi G, Tondo C, Doni F, et al. Effects of disopyramide on cycle length, effective refractory period and excitable gap of atrial flutter, and relation to arrhythmia termination by overdrive pacing. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:812-816.

67. Stambler BS, Wood MA, Ellenbogen KA. Comparative efficacy of intravenous ibutalide versus procainamide for enhancing termination of atrial flutter by atrial overdrive pacing. Am J Cardiol 1996;77(11):960-966.

68. Cosio FG, Lopez-Gil M, Goicolea A, et al. Radiofrequency ablation of the inferior vena cava-tricuspid valve isthmus in common atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1993;71:705-709.

69. Saoudi N, Atallah G, Kirkorian G, Touboul P. Catheter ablation of the atrial myocardium in human type I atrial flutter. Circulation 81:762-771.

70. Fischer B, Jais P, Shah D, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of common atrial flutter in 200 patients. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1996;7:1225-1233.

71. Tai CT, Chen SA, Chiang CE, et al. Long-term outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation for typical atrial flutter: risk prediction of recurrent arrhythmias. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:115-121.

72. Poty H, Saoudi N, Anair M, et al. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial flutter: further insights into the various types of isthmus block: application to ablation during sinus rhythm. Circulation 1996;94:3204-3213.

73. Schumacher B, Pfeiffer D, Tebbenjohanns J, et al. Acute and long-term effects of consecutive radiofrequency applications on conduction properties of the subeustachian isthmus in type I atrial flutter. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998;9:152-163.

74. Natale A, Leonelli F, Newby K, et al. Prospective randomized comparison of antiarrhythmic therapy versus first line radiofrequency ablation in patients with atrial flutter. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:1898-1904.

75. Kirkorian G, Moncada E, Chevalier P, et al. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter: efficacy of an anatomically guided approach. Circulation 1994;90:2804-2814.

76. Philippon F, Plumb VJ, Epstein AE. The risk of atrial fibrillation following radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial flutter. Circulation 1995;92:430-435.

77. Paydak H, Kall JG, Burke MC. Atrial fibrillation after radiofrequency ablation of type I atrial flutter: time to onset, determinants, and clinical course. Circulation 1998;98:315-322.

77a.Delacretaz E, Ganz LI, Soejima K, Friedman PL, Walsh EP, Triedman LJ, Landzberg MJ, Stevenson WG. Multi atrial maco-re-entry circuits in adults with repaired congenital heart disease: entrainment mapping combined with three-dimensional electroanatomic mapping. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(6):1665-1676.

78. Vaksmann G, Lacroix D, Klug D. Radiofrequency ablation of the His bundle for malignant atrial flutter after Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries. Am J Cardiol 1996;77(8):669-670.

79. Russell MW, Dorostkar PC, Dick M II, et al. Catheter interruption of the atrioventricular conduction using radiofrequency energy in a patient with transposition of the great arteries. PACE 1995;18:113-116.

80. Greene CA, Case CL, Gillette PC. Successful catheter fulguration of the His bundle in a postoperative Mustard patient after unsuccessful fulguration of ectopic atrial foci. PACE 1991;14:1593-1597.

81. Urcelay G, Dick M II, Bove EL, et al. Intraoperative mapping and radiofrequency ablation of the His bundle in a patient with complex congenital heart disease and intractable atrial arrhythmias following the Fontan operation. PACE 1993;16:1437-1440.

82. Waldo AL, MacLean WAH. Diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias following open heart surgery: emphasis on the use of epicardial wire electrodes. Futura Publishing, New York, NY, 1980.

83. Irani WN, Grayburn PA, Afridi I. Prevalence of thrombus, spontaneous echo contrast, and atrial stunning in patients undergoing cardioversion of atrial flutter: a prospective study using transesophageal echocardiography. Circulation 1997;95:962-966.

84. Santiago D, Warshofsky M, Li-Mandri G, et al. Left atrial appendage function and thrombus formation in atrial fibrillation-flutter: a transesophageal echocardiography study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:159-164.

85. Feltes TF, Friedman RA. Transesophageal echocardiography detection of atrial thrombi in patients with non-atrial fibrillation atrial tachycardias and congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1994;24:1365-1370.

86. Siedl K, Hauer B, Schwick N, et al. Rick of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:580-583.

87. Wood KA, Eisenberg SJ, Kalman JM, et al. Risk of thromboembolism in chronic atrial flutter. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:1043-1047.

88. Lanzarotti C, Olshanski B. Thromboembolic risk of chronic atrial flutter: is the risk underestimated? J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;30:1506-1511.

89. Petersen P, Boysen G, Godtfredsen J, et al. Placebo-controlled, randomized trial of warfarin and aspirin for prevention of thromboembolic complications in chronic atrial fibrillation: the Copenhagen AFASAK study. Lancet 1989;1:175-178.

90. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Study: final results. Circulation 1991;84:527-539.

91. The Boston Area Anticoagulation Trial for Atrial Fibrillation Investigators. The effect of low-dose warfarin on the risk of stroke in patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1990; 323:1505-1511.

92. Connolly SJ, Laupacis A, Gent M, et al. Canadian Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation (CAFA) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:349-355.

93. Ezekowitz MD, Bridgers SL, James KE, et al. Warfarin in the prevention of stroke associated with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1992;327:1406-1412.

94. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation Investigators: Warfarin versus aspirin for prevention of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation: Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation II study. Lancet 1994;343:687-691.

95. Anticoagulants in the Secondary Prevention of Events in Coronary Thrombosis (ASPECT) Research Group: effect of long-term oral anticoagulant treatment on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity after myocardial infarction. Lancet 1994;343:499-503.

96. Albers GW, Dalen JE, Laupacis A, Manning WJ, Petersen P, Singer DE. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation. Chest 2001;119:194S-206S.

97. Schumacher B, Jung W, Lewalter T, et al. Radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter due to administration of class 1C antiarrhythmic drugs for atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1999;83:710-713.

98. Huang DT, Monahan KM, Zimetbaum P, et al. Hybrid pharmacologic and ablative therapy: a novel and effective approach for the management of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1998; 98:315-322.

99. Tai CT, Chiang CE, Lee SH, et al. Persistent atrial flutter in patients treated for atrial fibrillation with amiodarone and propafenone: electrophysiologic characteristics, radiofrequency catheter ablation and risk prediction. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 1999;10:1180-1187.

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment