Secrets of the Deep Sky

Jupsat Pro Astronomy Software

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Secrets of the Deep Sky

Brian Ventrudo, author of Secrets of the Deep Sky, reveals how to look beyond the easy sights such as Venus, Mars, the Pleiades star cluster, and the moon, and find the much deeper parts of the beautiful night sky that most people never get see. You will learn to increase the reach of your telescope to look farther into the sky, and find any object of the night sky that you want to see. You will learn the celestial coordinate system, to learn how to map any object in the sky. You can also learn to estimate distances in the night sky. You can learn to change your field of view to see wide objects like massive nebula, and simple techniques to preserve your night vision and increase the sensitivity of your eyes by 20-40x. This eBook guide shows everyone, from the beginner to the more experience stargazer the best tricks to get the most out of every night sky. Continue reading...

Secrets of the Deep Sky Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Brian Ventrudo
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Price: $29.00

Appendix Mathematics Of Development 245

Finally, the authors would like to express thanks to reviewers for fruitful criticism, to Dr, Keith Jones, Publisher of Elsevier, and to Andy Deelen, Administrative Editor Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science and Astronomy Department, for their help and concern about the fate of this book.

Stars Galaxies and the Origin of Chemical Elements

That I am mortal I know, and that my days are numbered, but when in my mind I follow the multiply entwined orbits of the stars, then my feet do no longer touch the Earth. At the table of Zeus himself do I eat Ambrosia, the food of the Gods . These words by Ptolemy from around 125 A.D. are handed down together with his famous book The Almagest, the bible of astronomy for some 1500 years. They capture mankind's deep fascination with the movements of the heavens, and the miracles of the physical world. After the Babylonians observed the motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets for millennia, the ancient Greeks were the first to speculate about the nature of these celestial bodies. Yet it is only as a consequence of developments in the last 150 years that a much clearer picture of the physical universe has begun to emerge. Among the most important discoveries have been the stellar parallax, confirming Copernicus's heliocentric system, the realization that galaxies are comprised of billions...

The Post Main Sequence Evolution of Stars

From studies of the enrichment with time of elements heavier than He (the heavier elements are called metals in astronomy) in our and other spiral galaxies, one finds that population I type abundances were present 10 billion years ago (Lineweaver 2001), consistent with the age of the oldest open clusters. One also finds that the amount of metals is somewhat higher in the inner parts of the galaxy than in the outer parts, probably because of a higher supernova rate due to the higher matter density in the inner parts. Based on this decrease of metal content with distance from the galactic center Gonzalez et al. (2001) proposed the existence of a Galactic Habitable Zone in which complex life does primarily flourish and about which Lineweaver et al. (2004) have elaborated. However, because new results show that the galactic metal content does not decrease in the outer parts of the galaxy between 10 and 23 kpc (Carney et al. 2005) the existence of such a Galactic Habitable Zone is not well...

Scientific Revolution

The precise investigations contrived by Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton made ancient astronomy and physics obsolete, and Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey did the same for ancient anatomy and physiology. Innovations in botany were more evolutionary than revolutionary. Luca Ghini developed the botanic garden and herbarium as teaching and research aids, and his student Andrea Cesalpino wrote the first true textbook of botany (1583). Joachim Jung developed morphological terminology beyond that of Ruel and Cesalpino but without benefit of a microscope.

Historical Background to Levels of Processing in SDI

The Greek and Latin languages make a clear distinction between appearance and reality, and apparent usually corresponds to the modern psychological meaning of perceived. It is a mistake to assume that apparent size always meant true angular size (as it does in astronomy). Sometimes it corresponds to perceived linear size, and sometimes the meaning is debatable. Euclid (c. 300 BC) dealt with the question of perceived size in a geometrical manner, and stated that perceived size followed the visual angle subtended at the eye. He wrote in his Optics (Theorem 5) Objects of equal size unequally distant appear unequal and the one lying nearer to the eye always appears larger (Trans. Burton, 1945, p. 358). In this passage Euclid used the language of appearances. In another passage (Theorem 21, To know how great is a given length ) he argued that linear size (true object size) could be calculated in a geometrical manner from the angular size and from the distance but in this passage he used...

Lysenko Oparin and the Heresy of Morgano Weismannite genetics

Those who knew their way around the Soviet system could still get their views published. The Soviet astronomer I. S. Shklovsky (1916-85) wrote a book entitled Universe, Life and Mind published in the U.S.S.R. in 1961 in which he went far beyond astronomical topics with the intention of demolishing Oparins's notorious theory, as he put it. This was dangerous because Lysenko was still in favor in 1961, and Oparin was his close confederate. In a later book, Five Billion Vodka Bottles to the Moon, Shklovsky wrote of the reaction to his assault on Oparin, To all intents and purposes the book had escaped censorship. There was an uproar over it but nothing terrible happened. Oparin squealed in indignation. I wrote him a polite letter, but he ripped it into little pieces and returned it in the same envelope.

The Recently Discovered Planets

Stars and planets exhibit a continuous range of sizes and a precise classification is a matter of definition. In astronomy, stars are defined as bodies which, at one time in their lives, show regular nuclear fusion of hydrogen to helium in their core. This definition clearly distinguishes stars from planets, where the core temperatures never reach high enough values for such fusion processes. But it also eliminates substellar objects such as brown dwarfs, a class of low-mass objects which are neither stars nor planets. During a star's formation, the temperature in the core of the protostar rises continuously, and the maximum temperature attained depends on the amount of accumulated mass (Chap. 1). Only for bodies with masses greater than 0.075 M0 or 75 Mj does the temperature reach high enough values (107 K) to allow hydrogen to burn (M is the mass of the Sun and Mj that of Jupiter). The surface temperature of these minimal stars is Teg 2000 K and they have a radius of about 70 000...

Radio and Optical Searches for Extraterrestrial Civilizations

Arecibo Observatory Construction

The search for extraterrestrial intelligent life, SETI, began in the 1950s when Cocconi and Morrison (1959) suggested that microwave radio signals might be used to communicate between the stars. As already mentioned in Chap. 5, this suggestion was taken up by F. Drake, at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia, who over four months in project Ozma directed a 25 m radio telescope for six hours every day toward the two G-stars t Ceti and e Eridani, to search for regularly patterned pulses indicating intelligent civilizations. While Drake did not detect any signal from extraterrestrials, project Ozma spurred on the interest of others in the astronomical community, most immediately Russian colleagues such as I.S. Shklovskii and N. Kardashev. Initiated by the summer study project Cyclops at the NASA Ames Research Center, which looked for the best way META I (the Million-channel Extraterrestrial Assay) was a search program which, from 1985 to 1995, used...

The Philosophical Story I

The movements and traditions of today are not tight systems of thought in the strict sense of scientific theories they certainly are neither closed nor completed constructions of ideas that have been worked out in their final detail. They are instead products of obscure lines of historical development, often subject to the confusions and misunderstandings of our remote past when disaffection with complexities typified life. Nevertheless, interest in ourselves, in our foibles as well as our achievements, has always been central to humans' curiosity. The origins of interest in the workings of the mind were connected in their earliest form to studies of astronomy and spiritual unknowns. Even before any record of human thought had been drafted in written form, people asked fundamental questions such as why we behave, think, act, and feel as we do. Although primitive in their ideas, ancient people were always open to the tragic sources in their lives. Earliest answers, however, were...

Fundamentals and Applications Third[ Enlarged Edition

Knox, Department ofPhysics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA Aaron Lewis, Department of Applied Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel Stuart M. Lindsay, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax,

Preface On Genetic Code

This book introduces the general reader and the specialist to the new order of things in evolution, the origin of life on Earth, and the question of life on Mars and Europa and elsewhere in the universe. Although there are many fields of biology that are essentially descriptive, with the application of information theory, theoretical biology can now take its place with theoretical physics without apology. Thus biology has become a quantitative and computational science as George Gamow (1904-68) suggested. By employing information theory, comparisons between the genetics of organisms can now be made quantitatively with the same accuracy that is typical of astronomy, physics, and chemistry.

Evolution Chance and Information

Here astronomy, another historical science, might serve as a guide. There is not even a remote chance that astronomers would assume that the solar system came about because the gas and dust cloud, the progenitor of the solar system, had an innate teleological aim to form planets. And yet accretion disks, as computer simulations show, invariably form planetary systems, complete with central stars, as discussed in Chap. 2. Astronomers attribute this persistent outcome of the evolution of accretion disks to the laws of nature and the properties of the environment which, modeled with a computer code, lead to a directed development without the need to invoke a teleo-logical purpose. Because, like planet formation, biological evolution is also subject only to chance, to the laws of nature, and to the environment, we might suppose that one day it should be possible to simulate evolution on the computer. First steps toward a virtual cell - that is, to a complete computer simulation of cells -...

Needle And Syringe Development

Needles and syringes are used everyday by interven-tionalists and are two of the more common tools of our trade. In 1665, Oxford University architect and astronomer Christopher Wren performed the first recorded intravenous injection. Wren was convinced that substances could be injected directly into veins instead of being administered orally or rectally. He injected crocus metallorum (a mixture of antimony oxysulfide and antimony oxide) and opium into dogs. The dogs injected with crocus metallorum vomited to death while those injected with opium fell into a stupor (2).

Molecular Clouds

While our galaxy has a mass of about 1011 MQ, and typical stars possess masses in the range 0.1-120 Mq, giant molecular clouds have masses of up to 106 Mq. They are the most massive objects in our galaxy and there are large numbers of them. Their name comes from the many molecules identified within them by radio astronomy, some of which are listed in Table 1.1. In

The Drake Formula

In our search for extraterrestrial intelligent life, looking for Earth-like planets is only the first step. The next step (discussed in Chaps. 6 and 7) will be to consider the probability of the formation of life - and particularly of intelligent life - on such planets. It was the American radio astronomer Frank Drake, who in 1961 first suggested that the number of intelligent societies in our galaxy can be inferred, starting with an estimated frequency of Earthlike planets. He proposed a formula in which the total likelihood is expressed as a product of the individual probabilities for the various necessary conditions. This formula, henceforth called the Drake formula, roughly estimates The great advances in radio technology during the Second World War led in the 1950s to the construction of large radio telescopes, both in England (Jodrell Bank, near Manchester) and the United States (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, at Green Bank, West Virginia). The prime aim of these...

Early Searches

Schiaparelli, an astronomer from Milan, Italy, discovered canals (canali) on Mars, which were immediately attributed to intelligent Martians. This let to an outbreak of public excitement about Mars. The American amateur astronomer P. Lowell confirmed Schiaparelli's discovery and, observing from a specially built telescope at Flagstaff, Arizona, drafted maps of these canals, an example of which is shown in Fig. 8.3. Ingenious methods for establishing contact with the Martians were proposed. For instance, it has been suggested that large mirrors should be built, which could direct sunlight from Earth to Mars, in order to catch the attention of the Martians and send messages. But with the ability to measure the low Martian surface temperatures from its infrared emission, doubts have slowly grown about the existence of waterways on Mars and of Martians.

They do not Exist

Second, there is an even more fundamental consideration. To picture mankind and its place in the universe as unique has always turned out to be wrong. This was the case with the idea that the Earth was at the center of the universe. Supported by the powerful authority of Aristotle, this view had been a dogma for 1900 years up to the time of Copernicus in 1530, who established the heliocentric system. But our unique position was also shattered when, in 1924, Edwin Hubble discovered that our galaxy is only one of many in the universe, and in 1927 when Jan Oort found that the Sun orbits around the galactic center. The conviction that we cannot be in a unique place in the universe is now so profoundly established in astronomy that any world model that astrophysicists produce is required to satisfy the so-called cosmological principle, which states that the universe must look similar from

Telescopes Mastery

Telescopes Mastery

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