Antioxidant Defenses

1. Thioredoxin, a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, is possibly involved in antioxidant protection in human coronary arteries (424).

2. Exercise-induced plasma oxidative stress could be responsible for the prevention of atherosclerosis by stimulating arterial antioxidant response. In addition, vitamin E could be deleterious in exercisers by inhibiting antioxidant enzyme buildup in the arterial wall in LDL receptor -/- male mice fed an atherogenic diet (425).

3. In humans, a greater activity of antioxidant enzyme in intracranial arteries may contribute to their greater resistance to atherosclerosis.

With increasing age intracranial arteries respond with accelerated atherogenesis when their antioxidant protection decreases, relatively more than that of extracranial arteries (426).

4. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) regulates the production of ROS in macrophages, and it has a protective role against atherosclerosis (427).

5. The p66(Shc-/-) mouse is the unique genetic model of increased resistance to oxidative stress and prolonged life span in mammals (428).

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