Benefits of smoking cessation

Smoking cessation significantly improves cardiovascular health. According to the World Health Organization, within 1 year of quitting the risk of CHD decreases by 50 , and within 15 years (and often less) the relative risk of dying of CHD for an ex-smoker approaches that of a long-time nonsmoker (8,52). Therefore, smoking cessation is more beneficial in reducing mortality in the aggregate of smokers with coronary artery disease than medical therapy, (3-blockers with bypass surgery, or coronary...

Diagnostic evaluation

Biphasic Arterial Waveforms

The evaluation of a patient with lower extremity arterial occlusive disease starts with a detailed history and a complete physical examination 1 . A thorough pulse exam of both upper and lower extremities is of outmost importance. Absence of palpable pulses at any level indicates hemodynamically significant lesion s to the main artery proximal to that level. Thus, absence of palpable femoral pulses is suggestive of severe stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral iliac artery 2 . Hemodynamic...