The treatment of reduced sexual desire may focus on anxiety reduction with respect to emotional intimacy or sexual involvement or the resolution of relationship difficulties. Hammond (1990) provides a script for using the 'master control room' metaphor to step-wise increase sexual functioning. Negotiation and the use of post-hypnotic suggestions in association with the control room analogy also offer ways of improving sexual responsiveness and overcoming patient resistance. Hypnosis offers good opportunities to become absorbed in fantasy, and since a hypnotized subject may respond to fantasy as if it were reality, hypnotic techniques provide good opportunities for rehearsal of effective sexual functioning. The use of revivification of previous sexual arousal successes if appropriate, has been reported. Where anger is the inhibitory emotion metaphoric suggestions of extinguishing a powerful force may be used, such as putting out the inner fire of anger with water or sand the volcano...
The diagnostic criteria of female sexual arousal disorder revolve around inability to attain or maintain adequate sexual arousal, including vaginal vasocongestion, lubrication and vaginal expansion to allow satisfactory sexual activity. This disorder may manifest itself as a dyspareunia but is not classified as such if arousal difficulties are the primary aetiology. The use of fantasy with or without masturbation is an important strategy in the treatment of female sexual dysfunctions which centre around insufficient arousal. By its nature hypnosis allows absorption in fantasy and since in the hypnotic state a hypnotized subject may respond to fantasy as if it were reality, hypnotic techniques provide good opportunities for rehearsal of effective sexual functioning. Hammond (1990) provides some ideas about the appropriate suggestions to use to enhance sexual arousal and encourage vaginal lubrication. These strategies may be similarly applied in hypo-active desire disorders, dyspareunia...
For thousands of years, people have used perfumes, lotions, and oils in an effort to enhance their sexual appeal. Several companies have even started to market chemicals thought to be human phero-mones. Despite the huge appeal of such supposed aphrodisiacs, there is no evidence that any truly work. In other species, however, there exist naturally occurring chemicals that not only signal reproductive readiness, but also affect other individuals' reproductive capacity.
Dolphins appear chatty, almost constantly making variegated whistling sounds for alarm, sexual arousal, and other emotions. Moreover, they are very social. They show great affection and caring for each other and their calves. In addition, isolated from other dolphins and human keepers, captive dolphins pine away and die. Most linguistic authorities see dolphin and sperm whale intelligence as close to that of primates, but do not rate their communication as language.
The hypothalamus is the most inferior portion of the dien-cephalon. Located below the thalamus, it forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle. This small but extremely important brain region contains neural centers for hunger and thirst and for the regulation of body temperature and hormone secretion from the pituitary gland (fig. 8.17). In addition, centers in the hypothalamus contribute to the regulation of sleep, wakefulness, sexual arousal and performance, and such emotions as anger, fear, pain, and pleasure. Acting through its connections with the medulla oblongata of the brain stem, the hypothalamus helps to evoke the visceral responses to various emotional states. In its regulation of emotion, the hypothalamus works together with the limbic system, as was discussed in the previous section.
Hormones produced by different glands can have similar physiological effects. Both the adrenal glands and the testes produce androgens (masculinizing hormones). Sexually experienced male cats do not lose their sex drive if castrated, and researchers do not have a satisfactory answer as to why this occurs. Perhaps the adrenal hormones are sufficient to maintain established feline male sexual behavior but not sufficient to initiate it in inexperienced cats. The ablation of the adrenal glands, however, has severe consequences in terms of electrolyte and blood glucose imbalances that are life threatening. Replacement of ablated endocrine tissue can reinstate normal function. If
Dissociation into sexual involvement rather than away from it can be used to heighten arousal and defeat affective and cognitive distractions. The use of the hypnotic focus and suggestion to encourage amplification of sexual arousal, through intense focusing on sexually pleasurable sensations, heightens sexual involvement, particularly in those disorders that require increased sexual arousal, such as the hypoactive sexual desire disorders, erectile difficulties, dyspareunia (when due to inadequate arousal), female orgasmic disorders and retarded ejaculation.
Disorders of sexual interest have become one of the more commonly presenting disorders and their treatment is by no means straightforward. Schover & LoPiccolo (1982) found that up to 50 of patients presenting in the 'sex therapy clinic' complained of 'inhibited sexual desire' and yet, as Hammond (1990) notes, this is one of the most complex and least successfully treated of the sexual disorders. Careful evaluation is required to exclude medical and psychiatric causes. If of a psychological aetiology, such disorders may arise from inadequacies in sexual stimulation an inability to become absorbed in sexual intimacy distracting negative self talk, thoughts or images anxiety, guilt, or anger or a lack of sexual pleasure resulting in little interest due to there being insufficient pay-off for sexual activity. Traumatic sexual experiences and inadequate parental models are also frequently implicated in the aetiology of disorders of sexual desire (Hammond, 1990). The nature of the...
All the approaches designed to heighten sexual arousal in the female arousal disorders can be applied to the male patient detailed mental rehearsal of successful sexual arousal increased absorption and amplification of initially small sexual responses metaphors of arousal and lubrication such as an analogy with sweating and a healthy journey of discovery through the sexual organs and finding the sites of sexual pleasure.
Metaphor, in addition to the cognitive function of interpreting sensations, may contribute to a simple displacement of feeling. Metaphor transfers meaning between dissimilar domains, which allows for the play of similarity and difference. Anxiety and sexual arousal are experienced as similar
Dependent on age and co-morbidity, 64 of the patients with MIBC recorded erectile dysfunction present before any treatment was given, and 51 recorded decreased libido.8 Urinary symptoms were present in 2661 of the patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer before the start of any treatment.
The hypothalamus has been studied for many years for its role in regulating the homeostatic state and physiology of animals. Early experiments demonstrated that decorticate sham rage is dependent on the hypothalamus,1 and specific brain lesions have implicated the hypothalamus in thermoregulation, sleep, feeding, sex drive, and motivated behavior. Moreover, experiments performed as early as the 1940s implicated the hypothalamus as an important mediator of reward and motivated behavior. It was also demonstrated that different regions of the hypothalamus may antagonize each other medial hypothalamus (MH) lesions led to increased feeding while lateral hypothalamus LH) lesions led to reduced feeding and reduced motivation. This led to the development of a two-center hypothesis where the LH mediates, and the MH inhibits, reward-related behavior.2 The LH received further attention as a reward-mediating structure with the work of Olds and Milner, who showed that animals will robustly...
Species are exploited as food, either as eggs or adults, and others are killed for their shells or body parts, which are thought by some cultures to have medicinal or aphrodisiac qualities. Exotic predators, such as rats and dogs, dig up nests and kill adults. Hundreds of thousands of wild-caught turtles die each year in the pet trade, much of it illegal. Many species become roadkills when they migrate to new habitats or breeding sites. Only a few species are formally protected in at least some parts of their ranges, and several, including the sea turtles, may be nearing extinction in spite of efforts to conserve them.
Has not been used in human trials, however, because of potential harmful side effects. Other plant compounds that affect the reproductive system include diosgenin, extracted from Dioscorea species and used as a precursor for the progesterone used in birth control pills gossypol from cotton (Gossyp-ium species), which has been shown to be an effective birth control agent for males ergometrine, extracted from the ergot fungus (Claviceps) and used to control postpartum bleeding and yohimbine, from the African tree Corynanthe yohimbe, which apparently has some effect as an aphrodisiac.
Reliance on some non-living object as stimulus for sexual arousal and sexual gratification. Many fetishes are extensions of the human body, such as articles of clothing or footwear. Other common examples are characterised by some particular texture such as rubber, plastic or leather.
The phallocentric view is best represented by Freud's account of the Oedipus Complex. According to Freud (1933 1964), in early childhood both boys and girls recognize their mother as their primary caregiver and, because she fulfills their basic needs, they love and feel attached to her. As children move from the anal to the phallic stage of psychosexual development, their erogenous zone shifts to their genitalia. Their primary source of need satisfaction, the mother, then becomes an object of sexual desire. Freud believed that the girl's abandonment of the desire for the phallus and her subsequent ambivalent relationship with the mother causes her to have a less well developed sense of morality, or superego. This lack of complete Oedipal resolution on the part of girls led to what Freud called the feminine personality, which consisted of the key elements of passivity marked by the resignation of active sexual desire and inferior status masochism the desire willingness to endure...
Erection is associated with sexual arousal emanating from sexually related psychic and or physical stimuli. During sexual arousal, impulses from the genitalia, together with nerve signals originating in the limbic system, elicit motor impulses in the spinal cord. These neuronal impulses are carried by the parasympathetic nerves in the sacral region of the spinal cord via the cavernous nerve branches of the prostatic plexus that enter the penis. Those signals cause
Lactinemia, whether from hypothalamic disturbance or pituitary adenoma, often results in decreased GnRH production, hypogonadotropic state, impotence, and decreased libido. It can be treated with dopaminergic agonists (e.g., bromocryptine), which suppress PRL release (see Chapter 38). Excess androgens can also result in suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, resulting in lower LH levels and impaired testicular function. This condition often results from congenital adrenal hyperpla-sia and increased adrenal androgen production from 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) deficiency (see Chapter 34).
Columbine flowers have five spurred petals that resemble a circle of doves. The name comes from columba, the Latin word for dove. A blue and white species of columbine is the state flower of Colorado. Native Americans controlled diarrhea with a tea made from boiled columbine roots, and members of at least two tribes believed columbine seeds to have aphrodisiac properties. A man would pulverize the seeds, and after rubbing them in the palms of his hands, he would try to shake hands with the woman of his choice, believing the woman would then succumb to his advances. Others crushed and moistened the seeds and applied them to the scalp to repel lice.
In both phase III trials, adverse side effects associated with finasteride were evaluated. On the basis of these studies, finasteride was shown to be clinically safe. The incidence of adverse side effects for finasteride patients in both studies was limited and was generally quite similar to the incidence in placebo patients. Exceptions to this included a higher incidence of decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and diminished ejaculate volume in patients receiving finasteride.
No difference in the incidence of serious adverse events between the two groups was observed. In fact, the only adverse effects that were drug-related and for which the incidence was greater than or equal to 1 and greater than placebo were symptoms of sexual dysfunction (impotence, decreased libido, decreased ejaculate volume, ejaculation disorder), breast enlargement tenderness, and rash. Interestingly, two cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in the placebo group neither man had an antecedent history of gynecomastia. No cases of breast cancer were detected in the finasteride group during the study.
Hypnotic Absorption In Fantasy Including Sexual Fantasy Causes The Fantasy To Be Responded To As Reality
Additionally the malleability of fantasy in the hypnotic state can result in shifting sexual arousal, from response to some unacceptable (fetish) fantasy, towards an acceptable fantasy. This reorientation towards a more appropriate sexual context can occur with the patient using fantasy in conjunction with sexual intimacy or in masturbatory changes in sexual focus, as suggested by Marquis (1970).
4With such a vast number of types it is not surprising that there is a vast number of interesting aspects about their evolved social behaviour and reproduction. Andersson et al. (2000), in a recent study describe a fascinating aspect of sexual cooperation in the pierid butterfly (Pieris napi) the implications of which would be interesting to study from a modelling point of view. Traditional selection theory implies different selection pressures on the male and female which give rise to sexual conflict. In these butterflies, however, there is a remarkable cooperation between the male and female associated with mating. After mating they both share a common interest in reducing harassment of the female by other males wanting to mate. Andersson et al. (2000) found that the male, at mating, transfers a volatile anti-aphrodisiac which the female then emits when courted by other males it very quickly makes them lose interest. This anti-aphrodisiac is so strong that males even avoid virgin...
Gilmore (1987) illustrated the use of indirect metaphorical techniques to assist a woman who was experiencing panic in relation to sexual arousal. The aim of the embedded metaphors was to assist the patient in dissociating the feeling of pain and panic associated with past sexual trauma from contemporary sexual arousal. The first sexual metaphor of a walk in the sun was designed to activate relaxation and encourage letting herself go into a sensuous experience. The second metaphor alluded to overcoming apparent failure and therefore regaining a sense of control. The third metaphor indicated ways to learn to forget pain and guilt.
Sexual desire may be reduced by generalised debility or by the presence of perianal or cutaneous fistulas which alter the acceptance of his her own body image and thus make the patient uncomfortable and embarrassed with his or her partner. More often, the constant presence of symptoms like abdominal pain and diarrhoea are the cause of reduced relational and sexual activity 9 .
Ladybugs contribute to agriculture by eating aphids and other pests from the leaves of plants. In many parts of the Third World, people depend upon the larvae of beetles to add protein to their diets. Many folk remedies, including aphrodisiacs and diuretics, are made from dried beetles. Scarabs and other beetles consume carrion and clear away dead material that is potentially infectious.
Clinical difficulties in sexual functioning can arise at any phase of the normal sexual response and can come about from a wide variety of causes. The phases represented in normal sexual response are respectively sexual interest sexual arousal sexual penetration sexual orgasm, post-sexual resolution and post-sexual feelings. At each phase of the emotional and physical response, male sexual functioning may be hindered. Factors involved in the likely aetiology of the respective disorders are dealt with later.
The following form one is taken captive by a man (or woman) and is humiliated by being forced to urinate or defecate in front of the other. It is well recognized in our culture that losing control of one's bladder or rectum is the source of intense shame and humiliation. But the release of a pent-up substance can also serve as a perceptual metaphor for orgasm. Metaphor unites these seemingly disparate feelings because they share this similarity a spreading sensation of fullness, followed by release. When the scene in which one is forced by the other to urinate and defecate accompanies the act of sexual intercourse, there is a conflation in fantasy of the bodily functions of urination, defecation, and genital orgasm. Within the fantasy there is also a play of similarity and difference among urination, defecation, and genital orgasm. There is both a fusion and a confusion of functions that can be controlled by the self, such as urination and defecation, and a function that cannot be...
Efficacy was assessed quantitatively by the IIEF questionnaire. The primary outcome measure was the response to question 3 (frequency of penetration) and question 4 (maintenance of erection after penetration) each response was scored from 0 (no attempt at sexual intercourse) to 5 (almost always or always). The five separate response domains of the IIEF were also assessed (erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction). Patient logs and a global efficacy question were also used for qualitative assessment of efficacy.
Vaginismus, involving a recurrent or persistent involuntary contraction of the perineal muscles surrounding the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration with penis, finger, tampon or speculum is attempted, most commonly is of psychological aetiology, although it may also arise as a disorder secondary to dyspar-eunia. Hammond (1990) provides ideas about the appropriate suggestions to use to enhance sexual arousal and encourage vaginal lubrication. Metaphorical treatment approaches may also be successful as indicated in the example given earlier in this
Testosterone also stimulates the development and function of the male accessory sex glands (prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymides) that aid in sperm development and function, as well as copulation. Finally, testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics, such as the typical deeper male voice, increased body hair, penile growth, sex drive (libido), and male behavior patterns (17-20).
The penis is designed to deliver sperm to the female system. The penis consists of a long shaft with an enlarged head, the glans. The skin of the penis, especially the glans, is extremely sensitive to touch. In some species, the penis is withdrawn into a sheath of skin except during sexual arousal.
LCTs are found at all ages from 2 to 90 yr, with a peak occurrence in the fifth decade of life. In boys, these tumors typically occur between the ages of 4 and 10 yr and account for approx 10 of cases of precocious puberty (122). They are uniformly benign hormonally active tumors that present with macrogenitosomia (a syndrome that is characterized by precocious enlargement of the genitals), including an enlarged phallus and or prostate, and premature growth of pubic hair (120). Adult men with LCTs often present with a painless testicular mass, usually associated with gynecomastia, infertility, decreased libido, and other feminizing features. Gynecomastia is bilateral in 90 of the cases (123,124). Leydig cell hyperplasia (LCH) shares the same clinical presentation as LCTs, including painful gynecomastia and decreased libido in adults, precocious puberty in children,
And Canada, and P. notoginseng (Sanchi-ginseng) from China, have been widely used in China and Russia for the treatment of a number of diseases including anaemia, diabetes, gastritis, insomnia, sexual impotence, and as a general restorative. Interest in the drug has increased considerably in recent years and ginseng is widely available as a health food in the form of powders, extracts, and teas. The dried and usually peeled root provides white ginseng, whereas red ginseng is obtained by steaming the root, this process generating a reddish-brown caramel-like colour, and reputedly enhancing biological activity. Ginseng is classified as an 'adaptogen', helping the body to adapt to stress, improving stamina and concentration, and providing a normalizing and restorative effect. It is also widely promoted as an aphrodisiac. The Korean root is highly prized and the most expensive. Long term use of ginseng can lead to symptoms similar to those of corticosteroid poisoning, including...
Both androgenic and corticosteroid hormones, causing decreased libido and gynecomastia and, rarely, Addison's disease. Itraconazole does not have these effects when given at recommended doses but does cause edema, hypokalemia, and hypertension in a small percentage of patients. All of the azole agents have been noted to cause hepatitis in a small number of patients.
Nevertheless, habitat destruction and alteration are responsible for more declining snake populations than any other single factor. Many species are exploited as food, especially in parts of eastern Asia, and others are killed for body parts thought to have medicinal or aphrodisiac qualities. Introduced exotic species exact a toll. Many island populations of diurnally active terrestrial snakes have been extirpated by the mongoose, an effective predator introduced to control introduced rat populations. However, rats are nocturnal and mongooses active by day consequently they have a much greater impact on ground-dwelling snakes than on rats. The leather industry is responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of giant snakes each year. In addition, many wild snakes die each year as a consequence of being caught for the pet trade, much of it illegal. Many species become roadkills as they migrate. Only a few species are formally protected in at least some parts of their...
The two pathways leading to terpenoids are described the mevalonate pathway and the recently discovered mevalonate-independent pathway via deoxyxylulose phosphate. Terpenoids may be classified according to the number of isoprenoid units incorporated, and hemiterpenes, monoterpenes and the variants irregular monoterpenes and iridoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, triterpenes, tetraterpenes, and higher terpenoids are described in turn, representing groups with increasing numbers of isoprene units. Structures are rationalized through extensive use of carbocation mechanisms and subsequent Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements. Steroids as examples of modified triterpenoids are discussed in detail, including stereochemistry and molecular shape. There follows specific consideration of cholesterol, steroidal saponins, cardioactive glycosides, phytosterols, vitamin D, bile acids, corticosteroids and their semi-synthesis, progestogens, oestrogens, and androgens. Monograph topics giving...
It is well known that androgen replacement restores sexual function in hypogonadal men. These include sexual desire (libido), sexual fantasies, sexual enjoyment and frequency of sexual thoughts, sexual activities, and erectile function. In younger hypogo-nadal men, sexual performance, including erectile dysfunction, is improved by androgen replacement therapy (13-17). In older men, erectile dysfunction is usually multifactorial other causes, such as vascular, neurogenic, psychogenic, medication-induced, and cavernosal problems may predominate. Improvement in erectile function by testosterone treatment of androgen-deficient older men may be minimal or not as significant as in younger subjects (18-20). Although objective data are limited, it is possible that in androgen-deficient older men whose erectile dysfunction has been improved by phosphodiesterase V inhibitors (e.g., Sildenafil, Vardenafil, and Tadalfil) sexual performance may benefit by cotreatment with testosterone through...
Men release pheromones that are received by the antennae of the male moths. Certain male butterflies and moths have specialized scent-producing glands on their wings. The notable pair of black patches, or androconia, on the hindwings of the male monarch secrete aphrodisiac pheromones that increase the female's receptivity to mating. Pheromones can also make already-mated females unattractive to subsequent suitors.
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