1. Pathway of Carbon in Fatty Acid Synthesis Using your knowledge of fatty acid biosynthesis, provide an explanation for the following experimental observations:
(a) Addition of uniformly labeled [14C]acetyl-CoA to a soluble liver fraction yields palmitate uniformly labeled with 14C.
(b) However, addition of a trace of uniformly labeled [14C]acetyl-CoA in the presence of an excess of unlabeled malonyl-CoA to a soluble liver fraction yields palmitate labeled with 14C only in C-15 and C-16.
2. Synthesis of Fatty Acids from Glucose After a person has ingested large amounts of sucrose, the glucose and fructose that exceed caloric requirements are transformed to fatty acids for triacylglycerol synthesis. This fatty acid synthesis consumes acetyl-CoA, ATP, and NADPH. How are these substances produced from glucose?
3. Net Equation of Fatty Acid Synthesis Write the net equation for the biosynthesis of palmitate in rat liver, starting from mitochondrial acetyl-CoA and cytosolic NADPH, ATP, and CO2.
4. Pathway of Hydrogen in Fatty Acid Synthesis Consider a preparation that contains all the enzymes and cofac-tors necessary for fatty acid biosynthesis from added acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA.
(a) If [2-2H]acetyl-CoA (labeled with deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen)
(b) If unlabeled acetyl-CoA and [2-2H]malonyl-CoA
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