Mutations Are Linked to Cancer

The best way to illustrate the importance of DNA repair is to consider the effects of unrepaired DNA damage (a lesion). The most serious outcome is a change in the base sequence of the DNA, which, if replicated and transmitted to future cell generations, becomes permanent. A permanent change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA is called a mutation. Mutations can involve the replacement of one base pair with another (substitution mutation) or the addition or deletion of one or more base pairs (insertion or deletion mutations). If the mutation affects nonessential DNA or if it has a negligible

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