Monosaccharides and Disaccharides

The simplest of the carbohydrates, the monosaccharides, are either aldehydes or ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups; the six-carbon monosaccharides glucose and fructose have five hydroxyl groups. Many of the carbon atoms to which hydroxyl groups are attached are chiral centers, which give rise to the many sugar stereoisomers found in nature. We begin by describing the families of monosaccharides with backbones of three to seven carbons—their structure and stereoisomeric forms, and the means of representing their three-dimensional structures on paper. We then discuss several chemical reactions of the carbonyl groups of mono-saccharides. One such reaction, the addition of a hydroxyl group from within the same molecule, generates the cyclic forms of five- and six-carbon sugars (the forms that predominate in aqueous solution) and creates a new chiral center, adding further stereochemical complexity to this class of compounds. The nomenclature for unambiguously specifying the configuration about each carbon atom in a cyclic form and the means of representing these structures on paper are therefore described in some detail; this information will be useful as we discuss the metabolism of monosaccharides in Part II. We also introduce here some important mono-saccharide derivatives encountered in later chapters.

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