Chloroplasts Evolved from Endosymbiotic Bacteria

Like mitochondria, chloroplasts contain their own DNA and protein-synthesizing machinery. Some of the polypeptides of chloroplast proteins are encoded by chloroplast genes and synthesized in the chloroplast; others are encoded by nuclear genes, synthesized outside the chloroplast, and imported (Chapter 27). When plant cells grow and divide, chloroplasts give rise to new

Mitochondrion Chloroplast

Mitochondrion Chloroplast

Mitochondria Chloroplast Comparison

FIGURE 19-58 Comparison of the topology of proton movement and ATP synthase orientation in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the bacterium E. coli. In each case, orientation of the proton gradient relative to ATP synthase activity is the same.

Bacterium (E. coli)

FIGURE 19-58 Comparison of the topology of proton movement and ATP synthase orientation in the membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the bacterium E. coli. In each case, orientation of the proton gradient relative to ATP synthase activity is the same.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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