Amino Acids Share Common Structural Features

All 20 of the common amino acids are a-amino acids. They have a carboxyl group and an amino group bonded to the same carbon atom (the a carbon) (Fig. 3-2). They differ from each other in their side chains, or R groups, which vary in structure, size, and electric charge, and which influence the solubility of the amino acids in water. In addition to these 20 amino acids there are many less common ones. Some are residues modified after a protein has been synthesized; others are amino acids present in living organisms but not as constituents of proteins. The common amino acids of proteins have been assigned three-letter abbreviations and one-letter


Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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