Insulin Pathway

ganglia (Fig. 6.2) [11, 57, 110, 111]. IGF-I-induced cell proliferation and Fos/Jun expression are blocked by anti-IPG antibodies, and blockage is rescued by the addition of rat liver purified IPG-A or a myo-inositol-containing analogue [11, 57].

In summary, the activation of tyrosine kinase receptors induces the hydrolysis of GPI and the concomitant release of IPG, the mechanisms by which these two

Ipg Insulin Pathway

Fig. 6.3 Insulin signaling pathways. Possible routes through which insulin can promote its diverse biological actions: Cell proliferation, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and glycogen syn-

thesis. Arrows imply facilitating actions whereas crossbars indicate inhibitory ones. The asterisk represents the target molecules for IPG.

Fig. 6.3 Insulin signaling pathways. Possible routes through which insulin can promote its diverse biological actions: Cell proliferation, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and glycogen syn-

thesis. Arrows imply facilitating actions whereas crossbars indicate inhibitory ones. The asterisk represents the target molecules for IPG.

early events couple within membrane compartments are currently under study. IPG modulates the intracellular levels and/or activation of nodal signaling molecules, the general protein phosphorylation state of the cell and the levels of cy-clins and transcription factors, leading in a cell type-specific manner to the regulation of metabolism homeostasis and to cellular proliferation (Fig. 6.3).

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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