Bodyweight Burn Review

Bodyweight Burn Review

Longevity Blueprint Review

Longevity Blueprint Review

Relieve Age Old Back Pain in Just 16 Minutes With My Backpain Coach

Relieve Age Old Back Pain in Just 16 Minutes With My Backpain Coach

Visual Acuity and Sensitivity

While reading or similarly viewing objects in daylight, each eye is oriented so that the image falls within a tiny area of the retina called the fovea centralis. The fovea is a pinhead-sized pit fovea pit within a yellow area of the retina called the macula lutea. The pit is formed as a result of the displacement of neural layers around the periphery therefore, light falls directly on photoreceptors in the center fig. 10.41 . Light falling on other areas, by contrast, must pass through several...

Functional Neuroanatomy Of Penile Function

Parasympathetic and Nonadrenergic and Noncholinergic Outflow Parasympathetic preganglionic input to the human penis originates in the sacral S2-S4 spinal cord 30 . In most men, S3 is the main source of erectogenic fibers, with a smaller supply provided by either S2 or S4. These preganglionic neurons are situated in the intermediolateral cell column and send dendritic projections to laminae V, VII, IX, and X of the spinal cord. These distributions for axonal processes imply that sacral...

Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle

When the heart is in diastole, pressure in the systemic arteries averages about 80 mmHg millimeters of mercury . These events in the cardiac cycle then occur 1. As the ventricles begin their contraction, the intraventricular pressure rises, causing the AV valves to snap shut. At this time, the ventricles are neither being filled with blood because the AV valves are closed nor ejecting blood because the intraventricular pressure has not risen sufficiently to open the semilunar valves . This is...

Medial Release for Fixed Varus Deformity

Scuderi, and John N. Insall Varus deformity of the knee is one of the most common deformities seen at the time of total knee arthroplasty. When a fixed deformity is present, the pathoanatomy usually involves erosion of medial tibial bone stock with medial tibial osteophyte formation, and contractures of the medial collateral ligament MCL , pos-teromedial capsule, pes anserinus, and semimembranosus muscle Fig. 3.1 . Elongation of the lateral collateral ligament is a...

Explain How Valves In Veins Breathing And Skeletal Muscle Contractions Help Venous Blood Return To The Heart

Most of the total blood volume is contained in the venous system. Unlike arteries, which provide resistance to the flow of blood from the heart, veins are able to expand as they accumulate additional amounts of blood. The average pressure in the veins is only 2 mmHg, compared to a much higher average arterial pressure of about 100 mmHg. These values, expressed in millimeters of mercury, represent the hydrostatic pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the vessels. The low venous pressure...

Dimensions Required For Doctors Lounge In Layout

Space plan for internal medicine, 2640 square feet. Design Jain Malkin Inc. on an angled bed and gravity flow drains different lobes of the lung. The therapist, after administering bron-chodilator medication, cups the patient's back, and the patient coughs up the mucous. There is no generally accepted standard layout for a pulmonary function lab because it depends largely on the specific pieces of equipment the practitioner has and whether cardiovascular screening will be included....

Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle

The orderly process of depolarization described in the previous sections triggers a recurring cardiac cycle of atrial and ventricular contractions and relaxations Figure 14-24 . For orientation, we shall first merely name the parts of this cycle and their key events. Then we shall go through the cycle again, this time describing the pressure and volume changes that cause the events. The cycle is divided into two major phases, both named for events in the ventricles the period of ventricular...

External Form Of A Woody Twig

A woody twig consists of an axis with attached leaves Fig. 6.1 . If the leaves are attached to the twig alternately or in a spiral around the stem, they are said to be alternate, or alternately arranged. If the leaves are attached in pairs, they are said to be opposite, or oppositely arranged, or if they are in whorls groups of three or more , their arrangement is whorled. The area, or region not structure , of a stem where a leaf or leaves are attached is called a node, and a stem region...

Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

Insulin and glucagon secretion is largely regulated by the plasma concentrations of glucose and, to a lesser degree, of amino acids. The alpha and beta cells, therefore, act as both the sensors and effectors in this control system. Since the plasma concentration of glucose and amino acids rises during the absorption of a meal and falls during fasting, the secretion of insulin and glucagon likewise fluctuates between the absorptive and postabsorptive states. These changes in insulin and...

Feel Good Knees For Fast Pain Relief

Feel Good Knees For Fast Pain Relief

Complete Shoulder and Hip Blueprint Review

Complete Shoulder and Hip Blueprint Review

Juicing for Your Manhood: Increase Testosterone Review

Juicing for Your Manhood: Increase Testosterone Review

The Internal Environment and Homeostasis

An amoeba and a human liver cell both obtain their energy by breaking down certain organic nutrients. The chemical reactions involved in this intracellular process are remarkably similar in the two types of cells and involve the utilization of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide. The amoeba picks up oxygen directly from the fluid surrounding it its external environment and eliminates carbon dioxide into the same fluid. But how can the liver cell and all other internal parts of the body...

Ventilation and Acid Base Balance

The basic concepts and terminology relating to the acid-base balance of the blood were introduced in chapter 13. In brief review, acidosis refers to an arterial pH below 7.35, and alkalosis refers to an arterial pH above 7.45. There are two components of each respiratory and metabolic. The respiratory component refers to the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood, as measured by the PCO2. As implied by its name, the respiratory component is regulated by the respiratory system. The metabolic...

Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues

The distribution of extracellular fluid between the plasma and interstitial compartments is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Tissue fluid is not normally a stagnant pond rather, it is a continuously circulating medium, formed from and returning to the vascular system. In this way, the tissue cells receive a continuously fresh supply of glucose and other plasma solutes that are filtered through tiny endothelial channels in the capillary walls. Filtration results from blood pressure within the...

Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation

Chemoreceptor input to the brain stem modifies the rate and depth of breathing so that, under normal conditions, arterial PCo2, pH, and Po2 remain relatively constant. If hypoventilation inadequate ventilation occurs, PCO2 quickly rises and pH falls. The fall in pH is due to the fact that carbon dioxide can combine Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Figure 16.26 Sensory input from the aortic and carotid bodies. The peripheral chemoreceptors aortic and...

Hormones That Use Second Messengers

Hormones that are catecholamines epinephrine and norepineph-rine , polypeptides, and glycoproteins cannot pass through the lipid barrier of the target cell's plasma membrane. Although some of these hormones may enter the cell by pinocytosis, most of their effects result from their binding to receptor proteins on the outer surface of the target cell membrane. Since they exert their effects without entering the target cells, the actions of these hormones must be mediated by other molecules within...

Establishing Pneumoperitoneum

Pneumoperitoneum is most often established using a Veress needle. The needle is usually inserted at the site where the primary cannula for the laparoscope will be placed. Our preference is a vertical infra-umbilical incision because it overlies the location where the skin, fascia, and parietal peritoneum converge and fuse. If the patient has had prior abdominal surgery, we generally avoid the old incision scars and enter from a remote site in the upper abdomen. After the skin is incised, the...

Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance

The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled by the plasma calcium concentrations. Its secretion is stimulated by low calcium concentrations and inhibited by high calcium concentrations. Since parathyroid hormone stimulates the final hy-droxylation step in the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a rise in parathyroid hormone results in an increase in production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Low blood calcium can thus be corrected by the effects of increased parathyroid hormone and...

Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance

The skeleton supporting the body is a system of long bones and a many-jointed spine that cannot stand erect against the forces of gravity without the support given by coordinated muscle activity. The muscles that maintain upright posture that is, support the body's weight against gravity are controlled by the brain and by reflex mechanisms that are wired into the neural networks of the brainstem and spinal cord. Many of the reflex pathways previously introduced for example, the stretch and...

Attenuated Viruses and Bacteria Cause Immunity Without Disease

In some cases, microorganisms can be attenuated so that they lose their ability to cause significant disease pathogenicity but retain their capacity for transient growth within an inoculated host. Attenuation often can be achieved by growing a pathogenic bacterium or virus for prolonged periods under abnormal culture conditions. This procedure selects mutants that are better suited to growth in the abnormal culture conditions and are therefore less capable of growth in the natural host. For...

Smoke Free In One Hour Review

Smoke Free In One Hour Review

Face Engineering Exercises Review

Face Engineering Exercises Review

Big Natural Testicles Program Review

Big Natural Testicles Program Review

Review Activities

Test Your Knowledge ofTerms and Facts 1. Which of these statements is false 2. a. Most of the total blood volume is contained in veins. b. Capillaries have a greater total surface area than any other type of vessel. c. Exchanges between blood and 3. tissue fluid occur across the walls d. Small arteries and arterioles present great resistance to blood flow. All arteries in the body contain oxygen-rich blood with the exception of The lub, or first heart sound, is b. the pulmonary semilunar valve....

Clinical Aspects Immunity

Hypersensitivity is a harmful overreaction of the immune system, commonly known as allergy. In cases of allergy, a person is more sensitive to a particular antigen than the average individual. Common allergens are pollen, animal dander, dust, and foods, but there are many more. A seasonal allergy to inhaled pollens is commonly called hay fever. Responses may include itching, redness or tearing of the eyes conjunctivitis , skin rash, asthma, runny nose rhinitis , sneezing, urticaria hives , and...

Localized Anaphylaxis Atopy

In localized anaphylaxis, the reaction is limited to a specific target tissue or organ, often involving epithelial surfaces at the site of allergen entry. The tendency to manifest localized anaphylactic reactions is inherited and is called atopy. Atopic allergies, which afflict at least 20 of the population in developed countries, include a wide range of IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic rhinitis hay fever , asthma, atopic dermatitis eczema , and food allergies. ALLERGIC RHINITIS The...

Gastrointestinal Tract Infection

A variety of organisms can infect the gastrointestinal tract, from viruses and bacteria to protozoa and worms. Some produce short-lived upsets with gastroenteritis, nausea, diarrhea, and emesis vomiting . Others, such as typhoid, cholera, and dysentery, are more serious, even fatal. An ulcer is a lesion of the skin or a mucous membrane marked by inflammation and tissue damage. Ulcers caused by the damaging action of gastric, or peptic, juices on the lining of the GI tract are termed peptic...

Bowel Obstruction In The Elderly

Causes of bowel obstruction usually specific to the elderly include sigmoid volvulus, Ogilvie's Syndrome, colon carcinoma, and gallstone ileus. These conditions in the elderly patient can lead to gangrene with resulting perforation. Sigmoid volvulus is 20 times more likely in the patient age 60 yr and greater 19 . This age association may be due to acquired redundancy of the sigmoid colon. High-residue diets are believed to be the causative factor in developing a redundant sigmoid 20 . Other...

HIV1 Infection Leads to Opportunistic Infections

Isolation of HIV-1 and its growth in culture has allowed purification of viral proteins and the development of tests for infection with the virus. The most commonly used test is for the presence of antibodies directed against proteins of HIV-1. These generally appear in the serum of infected individuals by three months after the infection has occurred. When the antibodies appear, the individual is said to have serocon-verted or to be seropositive for HIV-1. Although the precise course of HIV-1...

Cerebral Palsy And Developmental Disabilities

Developmental disabilities DD is a term used to describe a collection of disorders that cause an impairment in normal development and body function.' There are a wide range of disabilities, with varying degrees of impact on growth and nutritional status. It is estimated that the incidence of developmental disability in the pediatric population is approximately 37r. Approximately 90 of children with developmental disabilities have nutritional concerns.- Some of these are outlined in Table 22-1....

Flatulence Diarrhea and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Problems related to flatulence, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome IBS are very common among adult patients with or without GERD.38 It is therefore to be expected that many patients will have these symptoms both before and after anti-reflux surgery. In a study from our institution, diarrhea was present in 14 of patients before surgery and 29 after. Other symptoms included bloating 3 preoperative, 19 postoperative , constipation 15 and 18 , respectively , and abdominal pain 2 and 8 ,...

Inspiration and Expiration

Between the bony portions of the rib cage are two layers of intercostal muscles the external intercostal muscles and the internal intercostal muscles fig. 16.14 . Between the costal cartilages, however, there is only one muscle layer, and its fibers are oriented in a manner similar to those of the internal inter-costals. These muscles are therefore called the interchondral part of the internal intercostals. Another name for them is the parasternal intercostals. An unforced, or quiet,...

Tranquilizer Free Review

Tranquilizer Free Review

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough Review

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough Review

Mental Impotence Healer Review

Mental Impotence Healer Review

The Hypothalamus Regulates Eating Behavior

Classically, the hypothalamus has been considered a grouping of regulatory centers governing homeostasis. With respect to eating, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus serves as a satiety center and the lateral hypo-thalamic area serves as a feeding center. Together, these areas coordinate the processes that govern eating behavior and the subjective perception of satiety. These hypothalamic areas also influence the secretion of hormones, partic- Paraventricular nucleus Anterior...

Immune Responses to Extracellular and Intracellular Bacteria Can Differ

Infection by extracellular bacteria induces production of humoral antibodies, which are ordinarily secreted by plasma cells in regional lymph nodes and the submucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. The humoral immune response is the main protective response against extracellular bacteria. The antibodies act in several ways to protect the host from the invading organisms, including removal of the bacteria and inactivation of bacterial toxins Figure 17-8 . Extracellular bacteria...

Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys

The formation of urine begins in the same manner as the formation of tissue fluid by filtration of plasma through capillary pores. These capillaries are known as glomeruli, and the filtrate they produce enters a system of tubules that transports and modifies the filtrate by mechanisms discussed in chapter 17 . The kidneys produce about 180 L per day of blood filtrate, but since there is only 5.5 L of blood in the body, it is clear that most of this filtrate must be returned to the vascular...

Hormone Structures and Synthesis

Hormones fall into three chemical classes 1 amines, 2 peptides and proteins, and 3 steroids. The amine hormones are all derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. They include the thyroid hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the adrenal medulla , and dopamine produced by the hypothalamus . Thyroid Hormones The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck wrapped around the front of the trachea windpipe . It is composed of many spherical structures called follicles, each...

Female sex organs produce eggs receive sperm and nurture the embryo

When a mammalian egg matures, it is released from the ovary directly into the body cavity. But the egg does not go far. Each ovary is enveloped by the undulating, fringed opening of an oviduct also known as a Fallopian tube , which sweeps the egg into that tube Figure 43.11 . Fertilization takes place in the oviduct. Whether or not the egg is fertilized, cilia lining the oviduct propel it slowly toward the uterus, a muscular, thick-walled cavity shaped in humans like an upside-down pear. The...

Intrapulmonary and Intrapleural Pressures

The visceral and parietal pleurae are normally flush against each other, so that the lungs are stuck to the chest wall in the same manner as two wet pieces of glass sticking to each other. The intrapleural space contains only a film of fluid secreted by the two membranes. The pleural cavity in a healthy person is thus potential rather than real it can become real only in abnormal situations when air enters the intrapleural space. Since the lungs normally remain in contact with the chest wall,...

Transport of Lipids in the Blood

Once the chylomicrons are in the blood, their triglyceride content is removed by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is attached to the endothelium of blood vessels. This enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids and Step 1 Emulsification of fat droplets by bile salts Step 2 Hydrolysis of triglycerides in emulsified fat droplets into fatty acid and monoglycerides Step 3 Dissolving of fatty acids and monoglycerides into micelles to produce mixed micelles Figure 18.35...

Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach

Proteins are only partially digested in the stomach by the action of pepsin, while carbohydrates and fats are not digested at all by pepsin. Digestion of starch begins in the mouth with the action of salivary amylase and continues for a time when the food enters the stomach, but amylase soon becomes inactivated by the strong acidity of gastric juice. The complete digestion of food molecules occurs later, when chyme enters the small intestine. Therefore, people who have had partial gastric...

Pituitary Gland Histology

Thyroid Gland Follicles Cuboidal epithelium surrounds endocrine follicles of the thyroid gland, the only gland that stores substantial amounts of its own hormone. X100 Cuboidal cells Extrafollicular cells Colloid Thyroid Gland Follicles Cuboidal epithelium surrounds endocrine follicles of the thyroid gland, the only gland that stores substantial amounts of its own hormone. X100 Cuboidal cells Extrafollicular cells Colloid Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland consists of two components the...

Type 2 Diabetes Defeated Review

Type 2 Diabetes Defeated Review

The Penis Master Review

The Penis Master Review

Fat Belly Detox Review

Fat Belly Detox Review

Significance of Blood PO and PCO2 Measurements

Since blood PO2 measurements are not directly affected by the oxygen in red blood cells, the PO2 does not provide a measurement of the total oxygen content of whole blood. It does, however, provide a good index of lung function. If the inspired air had a normal PO2 but the arterial PO2 was below normal, for example, you could conclude that gas exchange in the lungs was impaired. Measurements of arterial PO2 thus provide valuable information in treating people with pulmonary diseases, in...

Diseases Of Hoffas Fat

A variety of disease entities can affect this structure and cause AKP, including impingement syndromes, postarthroscopy changes, plica syndromes, and mass lesions 27-30 . Acute or repetitive trauma to Hoffa's fat pad can result in edema and hemorrhage. The resultant changes of enlargement put the fat pad at risk for impingement between the femur and tibia. Fibrosis and anterior knee pain can result 27 . This is called Hoffa's disease or syndrome. Acutely, there is high T2 signal and mass effect...

The Enterohepatic Circulation Recycles Bile Salts Between the Small Intestine and the Liver

The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts is the recycling of bile salts between the small intestine and the liver. The total amount of bile acids in the body, primary or secondary, conjugated or free, at any time is defined as the total bile acid pool. In healthy people, the bile acid pool ranges from 2 to 4 g. The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in this pool is physiologically extremely important. By cycling several times during a meal, a relatively small bile acid pool can provide...

Normal Anatomy and Anatomic Variations

The aortic arch and great vessel origins are best shown on the CE MRA. They are also seen to relatively good advantage on the 2D TOF images although stairstep artifact is usually quite noticeable in this region due to a combination of vessel pulsation and respiratory motion at the level of the aortic arch. This motion degradation is minimized with CE MRA due to the rapid acquisition and the averaging of pulsatile motion across the entire 3D data acquisition set. The common carotid arteries...

General Biology of the Fungi

The kingdom Fungi encompasses heterotrophic organisms with absorptive nutrition and with chitin in their cell walls. The fungi live by absorptive nutrition They secrete digestive enzymes that break down large food molecules in the environment, and then absorb the breakdown products. Many fungi are saprobes that absorb nutrients from dead matter, others are parasites that absorb nutrients from living hosts Figure 31.1 , and still others are mutualists that live in intimate association with other...

Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath

All axons in the PNS myelinated and unmyelinated are surrounded by a continuous, living sheath of Schwann cells, known as the neurilemma, or sheath of Schwann. The axons of the CNS, by contrast, lack a neurilemma Schwann cells are only found in the PNS . This is significant in terms of regeneration of damaged axons, as will be described shortly. Some axons in the PNS and CNS are surrounded by a myelin sheath. In the PNS, this insulating covering is formed by successive wrappings of the cell...

Inappropriate Expression of Class Ii Mhc Molecules Can Sensitize Autoreactive T Cells

The pancreatic beta cells of individuals with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM express high levels of both class I and class II MHC molecules, whereas healthy beta cells express lower levels of class I and do not express class II at all. Similarly, thyroid acinar cells from those with Graves' disease have been shown to express class II MHC molecules on their membranes. This inappropriate expression of class II MHC molecules, which are normally expressed only on antigen-presenting cells,...

Chemoreceptors in the Medulla

The chemoreceptors most sensitive to changes in the arterial PCO2 are located in the ventral area of the medulla oblongata, near the exit of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. These chemoreceptor neurons are anatomically separate from, but synaptically communicate with, the neurons of the respiratory control center in the medulla. An increase in arterial PCO2 causes a rise in the H concentration of the blood as a result of increased carbonic acid concentrations. The H in the blood, however,...

Carrier Mediated Transport

Molecules such as glucose are transported across plasma membranes by special protein carriers. Carrier-mediated transport in which the net movement is down a concentration gradient, and which is therefore passive, is called facilitated diffusion. Carrier-mediated transport that occurs against a concentration gradient, and which therefore requires metabolic energy, is called active transport. In order to sustain metabolism, cells must take up glucose, amino acids, and other organic molecules...

Sweat Miracle Excessive Sweating Cure Review

Sweat Miracle Excessive Sweating Cure Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Plantar Fasciitis Relief in 7 Days Review

Plantar Fasciitis Relief in 7 Days Review

Problems with luminal stenosis

Although luminal stenosis percentage is the most commonly used clinical measure of plaque risk, it is not at all clear how to measure it in the first place, as evidenced by the two different systems adopted by the two major clinical trials in this area, ECST and NASCET. ECST determined the fractional stenosis by using the luminal diameter at the point of maximal stenosis at angiography as the numerator and the projected diameter of the artery at that same Fig. 1. Diagram showing the problems...

Digestion and Absorption of Proteins

Protein digestion begins in the stomach with the action of pepsin. Some amino acids are liberated in the stomach, but the major products of pepsin digestion are short-chain polypeptides. Figure 18.32 The action of pancreatic amylase. Pancreatic amylase digests starch into maltose, maltriose, and short oligosaccharides containing branch points in the chain of glucose molecules. Pepsin digestion helps to produce a more homogenous chyme, but it is not essential for the complete digestion of...

Clinical Features Of Klinefelters Syndrome

The clinical manifestations of KS are those of prepubertal androgen deficiency and infertility. Because testicular failure occurs before puberty, the developmental changes Fig. 2. An individual with Klinefelter's syndrome. Note tall body proportions, gynecomastia, relative paucity of facial and body hair, and small testis. Photos courtesy of Dr. C. Alvin Paulsen. Fig. 2. An individual with Klinefelter's syndrome. Note tall body proportions, gynecomastia, relative paucity of facial and body...

Memory and Learning Require the Cerebral Cortex and Limbic System

Memory and learning are inextricably linked because part of the learning process involves the assimilation of new information and its commitment to memory. The most likely sites of learning in the human brain are the large association areas of the cerebral cortex, in coordination with subcortical structures deep in the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and amygdala. The association areas draw on sensory information received from the primary visual, auditory, somatic sensory, and...

Extracellular Osmolarity and Cell Volume

We can now apply the principles learned about osmosis to cells, which meet all the criteria necessary to produce an osmotic flow of water across a membrane. Both the intracellular and extracellular fluids contain water, and cells are surrounded by a membrane that is very permeable to water but impermeable to many substances nonpenetrating solutes . About 85 percent of the extracellular solute particles are sodium and chloride ions, which can diffuse into the cell through protein channels in the...

Functional Classes of Neurons

Neurons can be divided into three functional classes afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons. Afferent neurons convey information from the tissues and organs of the body into the central nervous system, efferent neurons transmit electric signals from the central nervous system out to effector cells particularly muscle or gland cells or other neurons , and interneurons connect neurons within the central nervous system Figure 8-4 . As a rough estimate, for each afferent neuron...

Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action

As previously discussed, the major hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine T4 . Like steroid hormones, thyroxine travels in the blood attached to carrier proteins primarily to thyroxine-binding globulin, or TBG . The thyroid also secretes a small amount of triiodothyronine, or T3. The carrier proteins have a higher affinity for T4 than for T3, however, and, as a result, the amount of unbound or free T3 in the plasma is about ten times greater than the amount of...

Body Temperatures And Heat Transfer In The Body

The body is divided into a warm internal core and a cooler outer shell Fig. 29.2 . Because the temperature of the shell is strongly influenced by the environment, its temperature is not regulated within narrow limits as the internal body temperature is, even though thermoregulatory responses strongly affect the temperature of the shell, especially its outermost layer, the skin. The thickness of the shell depends on the environment and the body's need to conserve heat. In a warm environment, the...

Uterine Leiomyomas And Stenosis Of The Right Oviduct

Case Study 15-1 Total Abdominal Hysterectomy With Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy M.T., a 60-year-old gravida 2, para 2, had spent 3 months under the care of her gynecologist for treatment of postmenopausal bleeding and cervical dysplasia. She had had several vaginal examinations with Pap smears, a uterine ultrasound, colposcopy with endocervical biopsies, and a D amp C with cone biopsy. She wanted to take hormone therapy, but her doctor thought she was at too much risk with the abnormal cells...

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Beyond Review

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Beyond Review

Plantar Fasciitis System Review

Plantar Fasciitis System Review

Yeast Infection Free Forever Review

Yeast Infection Free Forever Review

The Center For Human Reproduction

Forma Scientific, Inc. (incubators, cryopreservation dry shippers, laminar-flow bench workstations) Nikon (inverted microscope) (Note a video camera may be used with this.) Eppendorf (micromanipulator, centrifuges) Mid-Atlantic Diagnostics K-System (air suspension workbench with stereo microscope built into a vertical laminar flow cabinet) Barnstead Thermolyne (test tube mixers, rotators, and shakers) Diagnostics Products Corporation (Immulite endocrine analyzer) A list of the principal pieces...

Chickens Turkeys Pheasant And Quail

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, zoology The chicken, turkey, pheasant, and quail are related members of the family Phasianidae. Chickens are probably the most numerous bird in the world. chicks baby birds from chickens, turkeys, pheasant, or quail clutch a group of eggs in a nest cock male chicken, pheasant, or quail cockerel young male chicken, pheasant, egg a round, hard-shelled object produced by the female bird that may produce offspring, but is often used as...

Abnormalities in the shape of the chest

Those of clinical importance are as follows. Increase in anteroposterior diameter. In some patients with emphysema, the posterior AP diameter is increased and the two measurements may approximate barrel chest . The degree of chest deformity in emphysema is not a reliable guide to the severity of the functional defect. An increase in anteroposterior diameter may also be due to thoracic kyphosis unrelated to respiratory disease Fig. 4.12 . Thoracic kyphoscoliosis. This ranges in degree from the...

Effects Of Powerfull Magnet On Humanbeings

The Influence of Magnetic Fields on Man The human body is composed of atoms of different elements surrounded by water molecules. These atoms react to magnetic and electric forces and fields, and this may lead to, for example, a net-nuclear magnetization of a person when placed in a clinical MRI machine. It is therefore easy to imagine that magnetic and electromagnetic forces could alter physiologic functions, induce effects, or influence the organism in either a positive or negative way....

Intracellular Events Also Regulate Mast Cell Degranulation

The cytoplasmic domains of the p and 7 chains of FceRI are associated with protein tyrosine kinases PTKs . Crosslink-age of the FceRI receptors activates the associated PTKs, resulting in the phosphorylation of tyrosines within the ITAMs of the 7 subunit as well as phosphorylation of residues on the p subunit and on phospholipase C. These phos-phorylation events induce the production of a number of second messengers that mediate the process of degranulation Figure 16-6 . Within 15 s after...

Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis is a pathologic condition of the common extensor tendon at its origin from the lateral epicondyle. Lateral epicondylitis also is known as tennis elbow because more than 50 of tennis players develop the condition at some time or another 36 . Lateral epicondylitis is far more common in Fig. 13. Normal ulnar band of the lateral collateral ligament. Coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo image of the elbow shows the normal low signal intensity ulnar band of the...

Stress Reaction Femur

Stress fractures of the femur in runners may occur in the femoral neck, trochan-teric and subtrochanteric region, and femoral shaft. These injuries are often not considered in the initial presentation, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Patients commonly present with hip, groin, gluteal, thigh, or knee pain, depending on the location of the injury 18,72,73 . In a study by Clement and colleagues 72 , 71 patients who had 74 stress fractures of the femur were studied. Nearly 95 were...

Destruction of T Lymphocytes

The activated T lymphocytes must be destroyed after the infection has been cleared. This occurs because T cells produce a surface receptor called FAS. Production of FAS increases during the infection and, after a few days, the activated T lymphocytes begin to produce another surface molecule called FAS ligand. The binding of FAS to FAS ligand, on the same or on different cells, triggers the apoptosis cell suicide of the lymphocytes. R- Glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone secreted by SP I t...

Anticoagulation Coagulation Cascade

Thrombin is a glycosylated serine protease that plays a fundamental role in thrombosis 117 . Thrombin is generated from prothrombin by the prothrombinase complex, which includes factors Xa, Va, calcium, and phospholipids Fig. 7 . Its main action is to transform fibrinogen into fibrin. Thrombin is one of the most potent endogenous platelet activator 110-112 . The active catalytic site lies within a relatively narrow canyon on the molecule's surface Fig. 8 118 . Adjacent to this site is the...

The Formed Elements of Blood

The formed elements of blood include two types of blood cells erythrocytes, or red blood cells, and leukocytes, or white blood cells. Erythrocytes are by far the more numerous of the two. A cubic millimeter of blood contains 5.1 million to 5.8 million erythrocytes in males and 4.3 million to 5.2 million erythrocytes in females. The same volume of blood, by contrast, contains only 5,000 to 9,000 leukocytes. Erythrocytes are flattened, biconcave discs, about 7 im in diameter and 2.2 im thick....

Involvement of Renal Sympathetic Nerve in Pathogenesis of Hypertension

Hiroo Kumagai, Toshiko Onami, Kamon Iigaya, Chie Takimoto, Masaki Imai, Tomokazu Matsuura, Katsufumi Sakata, Naoki Oshima, Koichi Hayashi, Takao Saruta Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Network of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Baroreflex Figure 1 demonstrates the network of the sympathetic nervous system SNS 1-8 . The rostral ventrolateral medulla RVLM, shaded area contains neurons that stimulate the SNS and determine blood...

And Mitochondrial Leukoencephalopathies

Leigh syndrome, also called subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly occurring in infancy and childhood. The disease often starts before 1 year of age and leads to death in months or years. Juvenile and adult-onset forms have also been described. In most cases the disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance in some cases inheritance is maternal or X-linked. Both sexes are affected, but among infants there is a 3 2 male predominance. The course can be...

Endothelial Cells Can Release Chemicals That Cause Relaxation or Constriction of Arterioles

An important contributor to local vascular regulation is released by endothelial cells. This substance, endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDRF , is released from all arteries, microvessels, veins, and lymphatic endothelial cells. EDRF is nitric oxide NO , which is formed by the action of nitric oxide synthase on the amino acid arginine. NO causes the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle by inducing an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP . When cGMP is increased, the smooth muscle...

Antigen Selection of Lymphocytes Causes Clonal Expansion

A mature immunocompetent animal contains a large number of antigen-reactive clones of T and B lymphocytes the antigenic specificity of each of these clones is determined by the specificity of the antigen-binding receptor on the mem- Processing and presentation of exogenous and endogenous antigens. a Exogenous antigen is ingested by endocytosis or phagocytosis and then enters the endocytic processing pathway. Here, within an acidic environment, the antigen is degraded into small peptides, which...

Fluid Movement In Capillaries

Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension Hypoxia has opposite effects on the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Hypoxia relaxes vascular smooth muscle in systemic vessels and elicits vasoconstriction in the pulmonary vasculature. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is the major mechanism regulating the matching of regional blood flow to regional ventilation in the lungs. With regional hypoxia, the matching mechanism automatically adjusts regional pulmonary capillary blood flow in response to...

Leptin Stimulates Production of Anorexigenic Peptide Hormones

Two types of neurons in the arcuate nucleus control fuel intake and metabolism Fig. 23-33 . The orexigenic appetite-stimulating neurons stimulate eating by producing and releasing neuropeptide Y NPY , which causes the next neuron in the circuit to send the signal to the brain, Eat The blood level of NPY rises during starvation, and is elevated in both ob ob and db db mice. The high NPY concentration presumably underlies the obesity of these mice, who eat voraciously. The anorexigenic...

Prohormones and Prehormones

Hormone molecules that affect the metabolism of target cells are often derived from less active parent, or precursor, molecules. In the case of polypeptide hormones, the precursor may be a longer chained prohormone that is cut and spliced together to make the hormone. Insulin, for example, is produced from proinsulin within the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas see fig. 3.25 . In some cases, the prohormone itself is derived from an even larger precursor molecule in the case...

Types of Endocrine Disorders

Most endocrine disorders fall into one of four categories 1 too little hormone hyposecretion 2 too much hormone hypersecretion 3 reduced response of the target cells hyporesponsiveness and 4 increased response of the target cells hyperresponsive-ness . In the first two categories, the phrases too little hormone and too much hormone here mean too little or too much for any given physiological situation. For example, as we shall see, insulin secretion decreases during fasting, and this decrease...

Tfcc Compression Test

Lunotriquetral LT instability results from a disruption of the dorsal and palmar LT interosseous complex. A spectrum of pathology is possible, proportional to the magnitude and acuity of ligamentous disruption. Degenerative membrane perforation may be asymptomatic. Partial tears of the LT membrane may produce dynamic instability, and complete ligament dissociation may produce a static VISI pattern. Lunotriquetral instability most commonly follows a specific injury. Hyperextension at the wrist...

The Liver Is Important in Carbohydrate Metabolism

The liver is extremely important in maintaining an adequate supply of nutrients for cell metabolism and regulating blood glucose concentration Fig. 28.3 . After the ingestion of a meal, the blood glucose increases to a concentration of 120 to 150 mg dL, usually in 1 to 2 hours. Glucose is taken up by hepatocytes by a facilitated carrier-mediated process and is converted to glucose 6-phosphate and then UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose can be used for glycogen synthesis, or glycogenesis. It is generally...

The Loading and Unloading Reactions

Deoxyhemoglobin and oxygen combine to form oxyhemoglo-bin this is called the loading reaction. Oxyhemoglobin, in turn, dissociates to yield deoxyhemoglobin and free oxygen molecules this is the unloading reaction. The loading reaction occurs in the lungs and the unloading reaction occurs in the systemic capillaries. Loading and unloading can thus be shown as a reversible reaction Deoxyhemoglobin O2 lt z gt Oxyhemoglobin tissues The extent to which the reaction will go in each direction depends...

Xanthophyta The Yellowgreen Algae

The pigments in Xanthophyta are chlorophyll a, possibly chlorophyll e although there is some uncertainty related to a suspicion that its presence may be connected to limitations in extraction methods , and an abundance of carotenoid pigments. Motile cells have two unequal flagella a tinsel-type flagellum that extends anteriorly and a whiplash flagellum that trails posteriorly. There are approximately 400 species. The life cycle of Vaucheria is detailed as an example of this phyla. Vaucheria is...

Slow and Fast Twitch Fibers

Skeletal muscle fibers can be divided on the basis of their contraction speed time required to reach maximum tension into slow-twitch, or type I, fibers, and fast-twitch, or type II, fibers. These differences are associated with different myosin ATPase isoenzymes, which can also be designated as slow and fast. The two fiber types can be distinguished by their ATPase isoenzyme when they are appropriately stained fig. 12.23 . The extraocular muscles that position the eyes, for example, have a...

Digestion And Absorption Of Carbohydrates

The digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates takes place in the small intestine. These are extremely efficient processes, in that essentially all of the carbohydrates consumed are absorbed. Carbohydrates are an extremely important component of food intake, since they constitute about 45 to 50 of the typical Western diet and provide the greatest and least expensive source of energy. Carbohydrates must be digested to monosaccha-rides before absorption. The Diet Contains Both Digestible...

Organs with Dual Innervation

Most visceral organs receive dual innervation they are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. In this condition, the effects of the two divisions of the autonomic system may be antagonistic, complementary, or cooperative table 9.7 . The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the pacemaker region of the heart is the best example of the antagonism of these two systems. In this case, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers innervate the same cells. Adrenergic...

Chemical Classification of Hormones

Hormones secreted by different endocrine glands vary widely in chemical structure. All hormones, however, can be divided into a few chemical classes. 1. Amines. These are hormones derived from the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan. They include the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla, thyroid, and pineal glands. 2. Polypeptides and proteins. Polypeptide hormones generally contain less than 100 amino acids an example is antidiuretic hormone table 11.2 . Protein hormones are polypeptides...

Length Tension Relationship

The strength of a muscle's contraction is influenced by a variety of factors. These include the number of fibers within the muscle that are stimulated to contract, the frequency of stimulation, the thickness of each muscle fiber thicker fibers have more myofibrils and thus can exert more power , and the initial length of the muscle fibers when they are at rest. There is an ideal resting length for striated muscle fibers. This is the length at which they can generate maximum force. When the...

Erection Emission and Ejaculation

Erection, accompanied by increases in the length and width of the penis, is achieved as a result of blood flow into the erectile tissues of the penis. These erectile tissues include two paired structures the corpora cavernosa located on the dorsal side of the penis, and one unpaired corpus spongiosum on the ventral Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Figure 20.21 The organs of the male reproductive system. The male organs are seen here in a sagittal view. side fig. 20.22 . The urethra...

Acute and Chronic Exercise Increases Insulin Sensitivity Insulin Receptor Density and Glucose Transport into Muscle

Though skeletal muscle is omnivorous, its work intensity and duration, training status, inherent metabolic capacities, and substrate availability determine its energy sources. For very short-term exercise, stored phosphagens ATP and creatine phosphate are sufficient for crossbridge interaction between actin and myosin, even maximal efforts lasting 5 to 10 seconds require little or no glycolytic or oxidative energy production. When work to exhaustion is paced to be somewhat longer in duration,...

Inspection And Palpation Of The Precordium

Inspection and palpation of the cardiac pulsations of the anterior chest have been practiced by physicians since ancient times and have a solid scientific basis. The results of precordial inspection and palpation have been correlated with noninvasive studies, hemodynamic data, and surgical and autopsy studies202,203 and remain an important part of the cardiovascular examination. Their usefulness depends on an understanding of cardiovascular physiology, the proficiency of the examiner, and his...

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

All skeletal-muscle fibers do not have the same mechanical and metabolic characteristics. Different types of fibers can be identified on the basis of 1 their maximal velocities of shortening fast and slow fibers and 2 the major pathway used to form ATP oxida-tive and glycolytic fibers. Fast and slow fibers contain myosin isozymes that differ in the maximal rates at which they split ATP, which in turn determine the maximal rate of cross-bridge cycling and hence the fibers' maximal shortening...

Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation

Adrenergic stimulation by epinephrine in the blood and by norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve endings has both excitatory and inhibitory effects. The heart, dilatory muscles of the iris, and the smooth muscles of many blood vessels are stimulated to contract. The smooth muscles of the bronchioles and of some blood vessels, however, are inhibited from contracting adrenergic chemicals, therefore, cause these structures to dilate. Since excitatory and inhibitory effects can be produced...

Parasympathetic Division

The parasympathetic division is also known as the craniosacral division of the autonomic system. This is because its preganglionic fibers originate in the brain specifically, in the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and pons and in the second through fourth sacral levels of the spinal column. These pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in ganglia that are located next to or actually within the organs innervated. These parasympathetic ganglia, called terminal ganglia, supply the...

What Is Traditional Entrepreneurship

The word 'entrepreneur' is derived from the French word 'entreprendre' meaning 'to undertake' (Ronstadt 1985, p. 28). The traditional entrepreneur is one who undertakes to control, coordinate and assume the risk of a business in a competitive marketplace. Today's entrepreneurs possess those same features and have to be versatile in facing the challenges of a dynamic environment. Today's entrepreneur is an innovator and developer of ideas he or she seizes opportunities and converts them into...

The Holding Environment

The frame that supports the analytic relationship is also referred to as the holding environment, an expression that highlights its containing function. Bion 1967 drew a parallel between the mother's capacity to receive the raw intensity of her baby's projections, to empathise and to bear them, thereby rendering them eventually manageable for the baby, and the therapist's function of receiving, containing and transforming the patient's communications. This helps the patient eventually to...

Electrical Activity of the Heart

If the heart of a frog is removed from the body and all neural innervations are severed, it will still continue to beat as long as the myocardial cells remain alive. The automatic nature of the heartbeat is referred to as automaticity. As a result of experiments with isolated myocardial cells and clinical experience with patients who have specific heart disorders, many regions within the heart have been shown to be capable of originating action potentials and functioning as pacemakers. In a...

Herbivores have special adaptations for digesting cellulose

Cellulose is the principal organic compound in the diets of herbivores. Most herbivores, however, cannot produce cellu-lases, the enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose. Exceptions include silverfish insects well known for eating books and stored papers , earthworms, and shipworms. Other herbivores, from termites to cattle, rely on microorganisms living in their digestive tracts to digest cellulose for them. The digestive tracts of ruminants cud chewers such as cattle, goats, and sheep are...

The pharynx and buccal mucosa

Small lymphatic nodules can normally be observed on the posterior wall. With infection in the nose or sinuses, mucus or pus may be visible trickling down the back of the throat. Koplik's spots. In measles small white spots on an erythematous background arc distributed over the mucosa of the cheeks opposite the molar teeth and sometimes throughout the mouth. These Koplik's spots are of diagnostic value as they appear before the rash. Aphthous stomatitis. This is characterised by ulcers on the...

Diagnostic evaluation

The evaluation of a patient with lower extremity arterial occlusive disease starts with a detailed history and a complete physical examination 1 . A thorough pulse exam of both upper and lower extremities is of outmost importance. Absence of palpable pulses at any level indicates hemodynamically significant lesion s to the main artery proximal to that level. Thus, absence of palpable femoral pulses is suggestive of severe stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral iliac artery 2 . Hemodynamic...

Skeletal Muscle Action Potential

Brane potential to change after a stimulus is applied is called the time constant or t, and its relationship to capacitance C and resistance R is defined by the following equation In the absence of an action potential, a stimulus applied to the neuronal membrane results in a local potential change that decreases with distance away from the point of stimulation. The voltage change at any point is a function of current and resistance as defined by Ohm's law. If a lig-and-gated channel opens...

Accessory Ostia of the Maxillary Sinus Anterior to the Uncinate Process

If an ostium to the maxillary sinus can readily be seen by endoscopy in outpatients, it is probably an accessory ostia. The accessory ostium that is most readily seen lies anterior to the edge of the uncinate process Fig. 6.26a-d . Such ostia are said to be the result of recurrent acute maxillary infections, but this is conjectural. Fig.6.26a-d Anterior accessory ostium and its appearance on CT. Fig.6.26a-d Anterior accessory ostium and its appearance on CT. Fig. 6.27 a An endoscopic view of a...

Spermatogenesis Stimulation

The induction of spermatogenesis in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism requires testicular stimulation with GnRH or gonadotropins. Various preparations are available see Table 1 to reach this goal, each with advantages and disadvantages. Because the maturation of spermatogonia to mature sperm takes approx 70 d, the first sperm usually do not appear in the ejaculate for at least 3 mo, but it may take 2 yr for patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to become sperm...

Refractory Period of the Heart

Ventricular muscle, unlike skeletal muscle, is incapable of any significant degree of summation of contractions, and this is a very good thing. Imagine that cardiac muscle were able to undergo a prolonged tetanic contraction. During this period, no ventricular filling could occur since filling can occur only when the ventricular muscle is relaxed, and the heart would therefore cease to function as a pump. The inability of the heart to generate tetanic contractions is the result of the long...

Considerations for Esophageal Lengthening Procedures

It is essential that the gastroesophageal junction lie tension free in the abdomen before creating a fundic wrap. The length of tension-free intraabdominal esophagus should be measured after closing the crural defect. When the crura are closed from the caudal condensation of the crural fibers toward the anterior margin of the hiatus, the hiatal orifice is effectively displaced cephalad. This transposition of the hiatal orifice lengthens the intraabdominal segment of esophagus because the...

Palpation during inspiration

The liver, gallbladder, spleen and kidneys should be examined in turn during deep inspiration. The key to success is to keep the examining hand still and wait for the organ to descend. One common error is to begin palpation of the liver too close to the costal margin, thereby missing Place the hand flat on the abdomen with the lingers pointing upwards and position the sensing fingers index and middle lateral to the rectus muscle so that the fingertips lie on a line parallel to lhe expected...

Labeling Exercise 202

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Gastrocnemius Gluteus maximus Latissimus dorsi Peroneus longus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Sternocleidomastoid Teres major Teres minor Trapezius Triceps brachii Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number b. triangular muscle that covers the shoulder c. one of the hamstring muscles d. anterior muscle of the upper arm that flexes the forearm e. large muscle group of...