Bodyweight Burn Review

Bodyweight Burn Review

Longevity Blueprint Review

Longevity Blueprint Review

Relieve Age Old Back Pain in Just 16 Minutes With My Backpain Coach

Relieve Age Old Back Pain in Just 16 Minutes With My Backpain Coach

Hormone Structures and Synthesis

Hormones fall into three chemical classes 1 amines, 2 peptides and proteins, and 3 steroids. The amine hormones are all derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine. They include the thyroid hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the adrenal medulla , and dopamine produced by the hypothalamus . Thyroid Hormones The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck wrapped around the front of the trachea windpipe . It is composed of many spherical structures called follicles, each...

Clinical Features Of Klinefelters Syndrome

The clinical manifestations of KS are those of prepubertal androgen deficiency and infertility. Because testicular failure occurs before puberty, the developmental changes Fig. 2. An individual with Klinefelter's syndrome. Note tall body proportions, gynecomastia, relative paucity of facial and body hair, and small testis. Photos courtesy of Dr. C. Alvin Paulsen. Fig. 2. An individual with Klinefelter's syndrome. Note tall body proportions, gynecomastia, relative paucity of facial and body...

Significance of Blood PO and PCO2 Measurements

Since blood PO2 measurements are not directly affected by the oxygen in red blood cells, the PO2 does not provide a measurement of the total oxygen content of whole blood. It does, however, provide a good index of lung function. If the inspired air had a normal PO2 but the arterial PO2 was below normal, for example, you could conclude that gas exchange in the lungs was impaired. Measurements of arterial PO2 thus provide valuable information in treating people with pulmonary diseases, in...

Digestion and Absorption in the Stomach

Proteins are only partially digested in the stomach by the action of pepsin, while carbohydrates and fats are not digested at all by pepsin. Digestion of starch begins in the mouth with the action of salivary amylase and continues for a time when the food enters the stomach, but amylase soon becomes inactivated by the strong acidity of gastric juice. The complete digestion of food molecules occurs later, when chyme enters the small intestine. Therefore, people who have had partial gastric...

Memory and Learning Require the Cerebral Cortex and Limbic System

Memory and learning are inextricably linked because part of the learning process involves the assimilation of new information and its commitment to memory. The most likely sites of learning in the human brain are the large association areas of the cerebral cortex, in coordination with subcortical structures deep in the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and amygdala. The association areas draw on sensory information received from the primary visual, auditory, somatic sensory, and...

Extracellular Osmolarity and Cell Volume

We can now apply the principles learned about osmosis to cells, which meet all the criteria necessary to produce an osmotic flow of water across a membrane. Both the intracellular and extracellular fluids contain water, and cells are surrounded by a membrane that is very permeable to water but impermeable to many substances nonpenetrating solutes . About 85 percent of the extracellular solute particles are sodium and chloride ions, which can diffuse into the cell through protein channels in the...

Functional Classes of Neurons

Neurons can be divided into three functional classes afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons. Afferent neurons convey information from the tissues and organs of the body into the central nervous system, efferent neurons transmit electric signals from the central nervous system out to effector cells particularly muscle or gland cells or other neurons , and interneurons connect neurons within the central nervous system Figure 8-4 . As a rough estimate, for each afferent neuron...

Mechanism of Thyroid Hormone Action

As previously discussed, the major hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is thyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine T4 . Like steroid hormones, thyroxine travels in the blood attached to carrier proteins primarily to thyroxine-binding globulin, or TBG . The thyroid also secretes a small amount of triiodothyronine, or T3. The carrier proteins have a higher affinity for T4 than for T3, however, and, as a result, the amount of unbound or free T3 in the plasma is about ten times greater than the amount of...

Body Temperatures And Heat Transfer In The Body

The body is divided into a warm internal core and a cooler outer shell Fig. 29.2 . Because the temperature of the shell is strongly influenced by the environment, its temperature is not regulated within narrow limits as the internal body temperature is, even though thermoregulatory responses strongly affect the temperature of the shell, especially its outermost layer, the skin. The thickness of the shell depends on the environment and the body's need to conserve heat. In a warm environment, the...

Feel Good Knees For Fast Pain Relief

Feel Good Knees For Fast Pain Relief

Complete Shoulder and Hip Blueprint Review

Complete Shoulder and Hip Blueprint Review

Juicing for Your Manhood: Increase Testosterone Review

Juicing for Your Manhood: Increase Testosterone Review

Transport of Lipids in the Blood

Once the chylomicrons are in the blood, their triglyceride content is removed by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is attached to the endothelium of blood vessels. This enzyme hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids and Step 1 Emulsification of fat droplets by bile salts Step 2 Hydrolysis of triglycerides in emulsified fat droplets into fatty acid and monoglycerides Step 3 Dissolving of fatty acids and monoglycerides into micelles to produce mixed micelles Figure 18.35...

Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation

Chemoreceptor input to the brain stem modifies the rate and depth of breathing so that, under normal conditions, arterial PCo2, pH, and Po2 remain relatively constant. If hypoventilation inadequate ventilation occurs, PCO2 quickly rises and pH falls. The fall in pH is due to the fact that carbon dioxide can combine Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Sensory nerve fibers in vagus nerve Figure 16.26 Sensory input from the aortic and carotid bodies. The peripheral chemoreceptors aortic and...

The Center For Human Reproduction

Forma Scientific, Inc. (incubators, cryopreservation dry shippers, laminar-flow bench workstations) Nikon (inverted microscope) (Note a video camera may be used with this.) Eppendorf (micromanipulator, centrifuges) Mid-Atlantic Diagnostics K-System (air suspension workbench with stereo microscope built into a vertical laminar flow cabinet) Barnstead Thermolyne (test tube mixers, rotators, and shakers) Diagnostics Products Corporation (Immulite endocrine analyzer) A list of the principal pieces...

Uterine Leiomyomas And Stenosis Of The Right Oviduct

Case Study 15-1 Total Abdominal Hysterectomy With Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy M.T., a 60-year-old gravida 2, para 2, had spent 3 months under the care of her gynecologist for treatment of postmenopausal bleeding and cervical dysplasia. She had had several vaginal examinations with Pap smears, a uterine ultrasound, colposcopy with endocervical biopsies, and a D amp C with cone biopsy. She wanted to take hormone therapy, but her doctor thought she was at too much risk with the abnormal cells...

Abnormalities in the shape of the chest

Those of clinical importance are as follows. Increase in anteroposterior diameter. In some patients with emphysema, the posterior AP diameter is increased and the two measurements may approximate barrel chest . The degree of chest deformity in emphysema is not a reliable guide to the severity of the functional defect. An increase in anteroposterior diameter may also be due to thoracic kyphosis unrelated to respiratory disease Fig. 4.12 . Thoracic kyphoscoliosis. This ranges in degree from the...

Effects Of Powerfull Magnet On Humanbeings

The Influence of Magnetic Fields on Man The human body is composed of atoms of different elements surrounded by water molecules. These atoms react to magnetic and electric forces and fields, and this may lead to, for example, a net-nuclear magnetization of a person when placed in a clinical MRI machine. It is therefore easy to imagine that magnetic and electromagnetic forces could alter physiologic functions, induce effects, or influence the organism in either a positive or negative way....

Intracellular Events Also Regulate Mast Cell Degranulation

The cytoplasmic domains of the p and 7 chains of FceRI are associated with protein tyrosine kinases PTKs . Crosslink-age of the FceRI receptors activates the associated PTKs, resulting in the phosphorylation of tyrosines within the ITAMs of the 7 subunit as well as phosphorylation of residues on the p subunit and on phospholipase C. These phos-phorylation events induce the production of a number of second messengers that mediate the process of degranulation Figure 16-6 . Within 15 s after...

Diseases Of Hoffas Fat

A variety of disease entities can affect this structure and cause AKP, including impingement syndromes, postarthroscopy changes, plica syndromes, and mass lesions 27-30 . Acute or repetitive trauma to Hoffa's fat pad can result in edema and hemorrhage. The resultant changes of enlargement put the fat pad at risk for impingement between the femur and tibia. Fibrosis and anterior knee pain can result 27 . This is called Hoffa's disease or syndrome. Acutely, there is high T2 signal and mass effect...

Lateral Epicondylitis

Lateral epicondylitis is a pathologic condition of the common extensor tendon at its origin from the lateral epicondyle. Lateral epicondylitis also is known as tennis elbow because more than 50 of tennis players develop the condition at some time or another 36 . Lateral epicondylitis is far more common in Fig. 13. Normal ulnar band of the lateral collateral ligament. Coronal fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo image of the elbow shows the normal low signal intensity ulnar band of the...

Smoke Free In One Hour Review

Smoke Free In One Hour Review

Face Engineering Exercises Review

Face Engineering Exercises Review

Big Natural Testicles Program Review

Big Natural Testicles Program Review

Stress Reaction Femur

Stress fractures of the femur in runners may occur in the femoral neck, trochan-teric and subtrochanteric region, and femoral shaft. These injuries are often not considered in the initial presentation, and a high index of suspicion must be maintained. Patients commonly present with hip, groin, gluteal, thigh, or knee pain, depending on the location of the injury 18,72,73 . In a study by Clement and colleagues 72 , 71 patients who had 74 stress fractures of the femur were studied. Nearly 95 were...

Pituitary Gland Histology

Thyroid Gland Follicles Cuboidal epithelium surrounds endocrine follicles of the thyroid gland, the only gland that stores substantial amounts of its own hormone. X100 Cuboidal cells Extrafollicular cells Colloid Thyroid Gland Follicles Cuboidal epithelium surrounds endocrine follicles of the thyroid gland, the only gland that stores substantial amounts of its own hormone. X100 Cuboidal cells Extrafollicular cells Colloid Pituitary Gland The pituitary gland consists of two components the...

Destruction of T Lymphocytes

The activated T lymphocytes must be destroyed after the infection has been cleared. This occurs because T cells produce a surface receptor called FAS. Production of FAS increases during the infection and, after a few days, the activated T lymphocytes begin to produce another surface molecule called FAS ligand. The binding of FAS to FAS ligand, on the same or on different cells, triggers the apoptosis cell suicide of the lymphocytes. R- Glucocorticoids such as hydrocortisone secreted by SP I t...

Anticoagulation Coagulation Cascade

Thrombin is a glycosylated serine protease that plays a fundamental role in thrombosis 117 . Thrombin is generated from prothrombin by the prothrombinase complex, which includes factors Xa, Va, calcium, and phospholipids Fig. 7 . Its main action is to transform fibrinogen into fibrin. Thrombin is one of the most potent endogenous platelet activator 110-112 . The active catalytic site lies within a relatively narrow canyon on the molecule's surface Fig. 8 118 . Adjacent to this site is the...

The Formed Elements of Blood

The formed elements of blood include two types of blood cells erythrocytes, or red blood cells, and leukocytes, or white blood cells. Erythrocytes are by far the more numerous of the two. A cubic millimeter of blood contains 5.1 million to 5.8 million erythrocytes in males and 4.3 million to 5.2 million erythrocytes in females. The same volume of blood, by contrast, contains only 5,000 to 9,000 leukocytes. Erythrocytes are flattened, biconcave discs, about 7 im in diameter and 2.2 im thick....

Involvement of Renal Sympathetic Nerve in Pathogenesis of Hypertension

Hiroo Kumagai, Toshiko Onami, Kamon Iigaya, Chie Takimoto, Masaki Imai, Tomokazu Matsuura, Katsufumi Sakata, Naoki Oshima, Koichi Hayashi, Takao Saruta Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Network of the Sympathetic Nervous System and Baroreflex Figure 1 demonstrates the network of the sympathetic nervous system SNS 1-8 . The rostral ventrolateral medulla RVLM, shaded area contains neurons that stimulate the SNS and determine blood...

Inspiration and Expiration

Between the bony portions of the rib cage are two layers of intercostal muscles the external intercostal muscles and the internal intercostal muscles fig. 16.14 . Between the costal cartilages, however, there is only one muscle layer, and its fibers are oriented in a manner similar to those of the internal inter-costals. These muscles are therefore called the interchondral part of the internal intercostals. Another name for them is the parasternal intercostals. An unforced, or quiet,...

And Mitochondrial Leukoencephalopathies

Leigh syndrome, also called subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder mainly occurring in infancy and childhood. The disease often starts before 1 year of age and leads to death in months or years. Juvenile and adult-onset forms have also been described. In most cases the disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance in some cases inheritance is maternal or X-linked. Both sexes are affected, but among infants there is a 3 2 male predominance. The course can be...

Endothelial Cells Can Release Chemicals That Cause Relaxation or Constriction of Arterioles

An important contributor to local vascular regulation is released by endothelial cells. This substance, endothelium-derived relaxing factor EDRF , is released from all arteries, microvessels, veins, and lymphatic endothelial cells. EDRF is nitric oxide NO , which is formed by the action of nitric oxide synthase on the amino acid arginine. NO causes the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle by inducing an increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate cGMP . When cGMP is increased, the smooth muscle...

Tranquilizer Free Review

Tranquilizer Free Review

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough Review

The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough Review

Mental Impotence Healer Review

Mental Impotence Healer Review

The Internal Environment and Homeostasis

An amoeba and a human liver cell both obtain their energy by breaking down certain organic nutrients. The chemical reactions involved in this intracellular process are remarkably similar in the two types of cells and involve the utilization of oxygen and the production of carbon dioxide. The amoeba picks up oxygen directly from the fluid surrounding it its external environment and eliminates carbon dioxide into the same fluid. But how can the liver cell and all other internal parts of the body...

Antigen Selection of Lymphocytes Causes Clonal Expansion

A mature immunocompetent animal contains a large number of antigen-reactive clones of T and B lymphocytes the antigenic specificity of each of these clones is determined by the specificity of the antigen-binding receptor on the mem- Processing and presentation of exogenous and endogenous antigens. a Exogenous antigen is ingested by endocytosis or phagocytosis and then enters the endocytic processing pathway. Here, within an acidic environment, the antigen is degraded into small peptides, which...

Fluid Movement In Capillaries

Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension Hypoxia has opposite effects on the pulmonary and systemic circulations. Hypoxia relaxes vascular smooth muscle in systemic vessels and elicits vasoconstriction in the pulmonary vasculature. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is the major mechanism regulating the matching of regional blood flow to regional ventilation in the lungs. With regional hypoxia, the matching mechanism automatically adjusts regional pulmonary capillary blood flow in response to...

Leptin Stimulates Production of Anorexigenic Peptide Hormones

Two types of neurons in the arcuate nucleus control fuel intake and metabolism Fig. 23-33 . The orexigenic appetite-stimulating neurons stimulate eating by producing and releasing neuropeptide Y NPY , which causes the next neuron in the circuit to send the signal to the brain, Eat The blood level of NPY rises during starvation, and is elevated in both ob ob and db db mice. The high NPY concentration presumably underlies the obesity of these mice, who eat voraciously. The anorexigenic...

Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle

When the heart is in diastole, pressure in the systemic arteries averages about 80 mmHg millimeters of mercury . These events in the cardiac cycle then occur 1. As the ventricles begin their contraction, the intraventricular pressure rises, causing the AV valves to snap shut. At this time, the ventricles are neither being filled with blood because the AV valves are closed nor ejecting blood because the intraventricular pressure has not risen sufficiently to open the semilunar valves . This is...

Prohormones and Prehormones

Hormone molecules that affect the metabolism of target cells are often derived from less active parent, or precursor, molecules. In the case of polypeptide hormones, the precursor may be a longer chained prohormone that is cut and spliced together to make the hormone. Insulin, for example, is produced from proinsulin within the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas see fig. 3.25 . In some cases, the prohormone itself is derived from an even larger precursor molecule in the case...

Types of Endocrine Disorders

Most endocrine disorders fall into one of four categories 1 too little hormone hyposecretion 2 too much hormone hypersecretion 3 reduced response of the target cells hyporesponsiveness and 4 increased response of the target cells hyperresponsive-ness . In the first two categories, the phrases too little hormone and too much hormone here mean too little or too much for any given physiological situation. For example, as we shall see, insulin secretion decreases during fasting, and this decrease...

Tfcc Compression Test

Lunotriquetral LT instability results from a disruption of the dorsal and palmar LT interosseous complex. A spectrum of pathology is possible, proportional to the magnitude and acuity of ligamentous disruption. Degenerative membrane perforation may be asymptomatic. Partial tears of the LT membrane may produce dynamic instability, and complete ligament dissociation may produce a static VISI pattern. Lunotriquetral instability most commonly follows a specific injury. Hyperextension at the wrist...

The Loading and Unloading Reactions

Deoxyhemoglobin and oxygen combine to form oxyhemoglo-bin this is called the loading reaction. Oxyhemoglobin, in turn, dissociates to yield deoxyhemoglobin and free oxygen molecules this is the unloading reaction. The loading reaction occurs in the lungs and the unloading reaction occurs in the systemic capillaries. Loading and unloading can thus be shown as a reversible reaction Deoxyhemoglobin O2 lt z gt Oxyhemoglobin tissues The extent to which the reaction will go in each direction depends...

Type 2 Diabetes Defeated Review

Type 2 Diabetes Defeated Review

The Penis Master Review

The Penis Master Review

Fat Belly Detox Review

Fat Belly Detox Review

Normal Anatomy and Anatomic Variations

The aortic arch and great vessel origins are best shown on the CE MRA. They are also seen to relatively good advantage on the 2D TOF images although stairstep artifact is usually quite noticeable in this region due to a combination of vessel pulsation and respiratory motion at the level of the aortic arch. This motion degradation is minimized with CE MRA due to the rapid acquisition and the averaging of pulsatile motion across the entire 3D data acquisition set. The common carotid arteries...

Xanthophyta The Yellowgreen Algae

The pigments in Xanthophyta are chlorophyll a, possibly chlorophyll e although there is some uncertainty related to a suspicion that its presence may be connected to limitations in extraction methods , and an abundance of carotenoid pigments. Motile cells have two unequal flagella a tinsel-type flagellum that extends anteriorly and a whiplash flagellum that trails posteriorly. There are approximately 400 species. The life cycle of Vaucheria is detailed as an example of this phyla. Vaucheria is...

Slow and Fast Twitch Fibers

Skeletal muscle fibers can be divided on the basis of their contraction speed time required to reach maximum tension into slow-twitch, or type I, fibers, and fast-twitch, or type II, fibers. These differences are associated with different myosin ATPase isoenzymes, which can also be designated as slow and fast. The two fiber types can be distinguished by their ATPase isoenzyme when they are appropriately stained fig. 12.23 . The extraocular muscles that position the eyes, for example, have a...

Digestion And Absorption Of Carbohydrates

The digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates takes place in the small intestine. These are extremely efficient processes, in that essentially all of the carbohydrates consumed are absorbed. Carbohydrates are an extremely important component of food intake, since they constitute about 45 to 50 of the typical Western diet and provide the greatest and least expensive source of energy. Carbohydrates must be digested to monosaccha-rides before absorption. The Diet Contains Both Digestible...

Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys

The formation of urine begins in the same manner as the formation of tissue fluid by filtration of plasma through capillary pores. These capillaries are known as glomeruli, and the filtrate they produce enters a system of tubules that transports and modifies the filtrate by mechanisms discussed in chapter 17 . The kidneys produce about 180 L per day of blood filtrate, but since there is only 5.5 L of blood in the body, it is clear that most of this filtrate must be returned to the vascular...

Organs with Dual Innervation

Most visceral organs receive dual innervation they are innervated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. In this condition, the effects of the two divisions of the autonomic system may be antagonistic, complementary, or cooperative table 9.7 . The effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the pacemaker region of the heart is the best example of the antagonism of these two systems. In this case, sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers innervate the same cells. Adrenergic...

Explain How Valves In Veins Breathing And Skeletal Muscle Contractions Help Venous Blood Return To The Heart

Most of the total blood volume is contained in the venous system. Unlike arteries, which provide resistance to the flow of blood from the heart, veins are able to expand as they accumulate additional amounts of blood. The average pressure in the veins is only 2 mmHg, compared to a much higher average arterial pressure of about 100 mmHg. These values, expressed in millimeters of mercury, represent the hydrostatic pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the vessels. The low venous pressure...

Chemical Classification of Hormones

Hormones secreted by different endocrine glands vary widely in chemical structure. All hormones, however, can be divided into a few chemical classes. 1. Amines. These are hormones derived from the amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan. They include the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla, thyroid, and pineal glands. 2. Polypeptides and proteins. Polypeptide hormones generally contain less than 100 amino acids an example is antidiuretic hormone table 11.2 . Protein hormones are polypeptides...

Length Tension Relationship

The strength of a muscle's contraction is influenced by a variety of factors. These include the number of fibers within the muscle that are stimulated to contract, the frequency of stimulation, the thickness of each muscle fiber thicker fibers have more myofibrils and thus can exert more power , and the initial length of the muscle fibers when they are at rest. There is an ideal resting length for striated muscle fibers. This is the length at which they can generate maximum force. When the...

Sweat Miracle Excessive Sweating Cure Review

Sweat Miracle Excessive Sweating Cure Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Eat Stop Eat Review

Plantar Fasciitis Relief in 7 Days Review

Plantar Fasciitis Relief in 7 Days Review

Erection Emission and Ejaculation

Erection, accompanied by increases in the length and width of the penis, is achieved as a result of blood flow into the erectile tissues of the penis. These erectile tissues include two paired structures the corpora cavernosa located on the dorsal side of the penis, and one unpaired corpus spongiosum on the ventral Seminal vesicle Ejaculatory duct Prostate Figure 20.21 The organs of the male reproductive system. The male organs are seen here in a sagittal view. side fig. 20.22 . The urethra...

Acute and Chronic Exercise Increases Insulin Sensitivity Insulin Receptor Density and Glucose Transport into Muscle

Though skeletal muscle is omnivorous, its work intensity and duration, training status, inherent metabolic capacities, and substrate availability determine its energy sources. For very short-term exercise, stored phosphagens ATP and creatine phosphate are sufficient for crossbridge interaction between actin and myosin, even maximal efforts lasting 5 to 10 seconds require little or no glycolytic or oxidative energy production. When work to exhaustion is paced to be somewhat longer in duration,...

Inspection And Palpation Of The Precordium

Inspection and palpation of the cardiac pulsations of the anterior chest have been practiced by physicians since ancient times and have a solid scientific basis. The results of precordial inspection and palpation have been correlated with noninvasive studies, hemodynamic data, and surgical and autopsy studies202,203 and remain an important part of the cardiovascular examination. Their usefulness depends on an understanding of cardiovascular physiology, the proficiency of the examiner, and his...

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

All skeletal-muscle fibers do not have the same mechanical and metabolic characteristics. Different types of fibers can be identified on the basis of 1 their maximal velocities of shortening fast and slow fibers and 2 the major pathway used to form ATP oxida-tive and glycolytic fibers. Fast and slow fibers contain myosin isozymes that differ in the maximal rates at which they split ATP, which in turn determine the maximal rate of cross-bridge cycling and hence the fibers' maximal shortening...

Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation

Adrenergic stimulation by epinephrine in the blood and by norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve endings has both excitatory and inhibitory effects. The heart, dilatory muscles of the iris, and the smooth muscles of many blood vessels are stimulated to contract. The smooth muscles of the bronchioles and of some blood vessels, however, are inhibited from contracting adrenergic chemicals, therefore, cause these structures to dilate. Since excitatory and inhibitory effects can be produced...

Parasympathetic Division

The parasympathetic division is also known as the craniosacral division of the autonomic system. This is because its preganglionic fibers originate in the brain specifically, in the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and pons and in the second through fourth sacral levels of the spinal column. These pre-ganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in ganglia that are located next to or actually within the organs innervated. These parasympathetic ganglia, called terminal ganglia, supply the...

What Is Traditional Entrepreneurship

The word 'entrepreneur' is derived from the French word 'entreprendre' meaning 'to undertake' (Ronstadt 1985, p. 28). The traditional entrepreneur is one who undertakes to control, coordinate and assume the risk of a business in a competitive marketplace. Today's entrepreneurs possess those same features and have to be versatile in facing the challenges of a dynamic environment. Today's entrepreneur is an innovator and developer of ideas he or she seizes opportunities and converts them into...

The Holding Environment

The frame that supports the analytic relationship is also referred to as the holding environment, an expression that highlights its containing function. Bion 1967 drew a parallel between the mother's capacity to receive the raw intensity of her baby's projections, to empathise and to bear them, thereby rendering them eventually manageable for the baby, and the therapist's function of receiving, containing and transforming the patient's communications. This helps the patient eventually to...

Electrical Activity of the Heart

If the heart of a frog is removed from the body and all neural innervations are severed, it will still continue to beat as long as the myocardial cells remain alive. The automatic nature of the heartbeat is referred to as automaticity. As a result of experiments with isolated myocardial cells and clinical experience with patients who have specific heart disorders, many regions within the heart have been shown to be capable of originating action potentials and functioning as pacemakers. In a...

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Beyond Review

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Beyond Review

Plantar Fasciitis System Review

Plantar Fasciitis System Review

Yeast Infection Free Forever Review

Yeast Infection Free Forever Review

Herbivores have special adaptations for digesting cellulose

Cellulose is the principal organic compound in the diets of herbivores. Most herbivores, however, cannot produce cellu-lases, the enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose. Exceptions include silverfish insects well known for eating books and stored papers , earthworms, and shipworms. Other herbivores, from termites to cattle, rely on microorganisms living in their digestive tracts to digest cellulose for them. The digestive tracts of ruminants cud chewers such as cattle, goats, and sheep are...

The pharynx and buccal mucosa

Small lymphatic nodules can normally be observed on the posterior wall. With infection in the nose or sinuses, mucus or pus may be visible trickling down the back of the throat. Koplik's spots. In measles small white spots on an erythematous background arc distributed over the mucosa of the cheeks opposite the molar teeth and sometimes throughout the mouth. These Koplik's spots are of diagnostic value as they appear before the rash. Aphthous stomatitis. This is characterised by ulcers on the...

Diagnostic evaluation

The evaluation of a patient with lower extremity arterial occlusive disease starts with a detailed history and a complete physical examination 1 . A thorough pulse exam of both upper and lower extremities is of outmost importance. Absence of palpable pulses at any level indicates hemodynamically significant lesion s to the main artery proximal to that level. Thus, absence of palpable femoral pulses is suggestive of severe stenosis or occlusion of the ipsilateral iliac artery 2 . Hemodynamic...

Skeletal Muscle Action Potential

Brane potential to change after a stimulus is applied is called the time constant or t, and its relationship to capacitance C and resistance R is defined by the following equation In the absence of an action potential, a stimulus applied to the neuronal membrane results in a local potential change that decreases with distance away from the point of stimulation. The voltage change at any point is a function of current and resistance as defined by Ohm's law. If a lig-and-gated channel opens...

Hormones That Use Second Messengers

Hormones that are catecholamines epinephrine and norepineph-rine , polypeptides, and glycoproteins cannot pass through the lipid barrier of the target cell's plasma membrane. Although some of these hormones may enter the cell by pinocytosis, most of their effects result from their binding to receptor proteins on the outer surface of the target cell membrane. Since they exert their effects without entering the target cells, the actions of these hormones must be mediated by other molecules within...

Accessory Ostia of the Maxillary Sinus Anterior to the Uncinate Process

If an ostium to the maxillary sinus can readily be seen by endoscopy in outpatients, it is probably an accessory ostia. The accessory ostium that is most readily seen lies anterior to the edge of the uncinate process Fig. 6.26a-d . Such ostia are said to be the result of recurrent acute maxillary infections, but this is conjectural. Fig.6.26a-d Anterior accessory ostium and its appearance on CT. Fig.6.26a-d Anterior accessory ostium and its appearance on CT. Fig. 6.27 a An endoscopic view of a...

Spermatogenesis Stimulation

The induction of spermatogenesis in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism requires testicular stimulation with GnRH or gonadotropins. Various preparations are available see Table 1 to reach this goal, each with advantages and disadvantages. Because the maturation of spermatogonia to mature sperm takes approx 70 d, the first sperm usually do not appear in the ejaculate for at least 3 mo, but it may take 2 yr for patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to become sperm...

Refractory Period of the Heart

Ventricular muscle, unlike skeletal muscle, is incapable of any significant degree of summation of contractions, and this is a very good thing. Imagine that cardiac muscle were able to undergo a prolonged tetanic contraction. During this period, no ventricular filling could occur since filling can occur only when the ventricular muscle is relaxed, and the heart would therefore cease to function as a pump. The inability of the heart to generate tetanic contractions is the result of the long...

Considerations for Esophageal Lengthening Procedures

It is essential that the gastroesophageal junction lie tension free in the abdomen before creating a fundic wrap. The length of tension-free intraabdominal esophagus should be measured after closing the crural defect. When the crura are closed from the caudal condensation of the crural fibers toward the anterior margin of the hiatus, the hiatal orifice is effectively displaced cephalad. This transposition of the hiatal orifice lengthens the intraabdominal segment of esophagus because the...

Palpation during inspiration

The liver, gallbladder, spleen and kidneys should be examined in turn during deep inspiration. The key to success is to keep the examining hand still and wait for the organ to descend. One common error is to begin palpation of the liver too close to the costal margin, thereby missing Place the hand flat on the abdomen with the lingers pointing upwards and position the sensing fingers index and middle lateral to the rectus muscle so that the fingertips lie on a line parallel to lhe expected...

Labeling Exercise 202

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Gastrocnemius Gluteus maximus Latissimus dorsi Peroneus longus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Sternocleidomastoid Teres major Teres minor Trapezius Triceps brachii Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number b. triangular muscle that covers the shoulder c. one of the hamstring muscles d. anterior muscle of the upper arm that flexes the forearm e. large muscle group of...

Medical Term Urine In Cavity

A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into the dialysate. FIGURE 13-7. Peritoneal dialysis. A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into...

Muscle Cells Obtain ATP From Several Sources

Although ATP is the immediate fuel for the contraction process, its concentration in the muscle cell is never high enough to sustain a long series of contractions. Most of the immediate energy supply is held in an energy pool of the compound creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine PCr , which is in chemical equilibrium with ATP. After a molecule of ATP has been split and yielded its energy, the resulting ADP molecule is readily rephosphorylated to ATP by the high-energy phosphate group from a...

Diets that are Scientifically Supported

There are numerous diet plans out there some work while others are unproven. If you are looking to shade some weight, you have got plenty of options, but if you want to use diet to curb a health problem, the choices narrow significantly. Only a few are scientifically proven for providing health benefits like preventing acid reflex and regulating blood pressure. In this article, I am going to walk you through diets that are backed by extensive research and evidence. Most of these diets emphasize...

Organization of the Respiratory System

There are two lungs, the right and left, each divided into several lobes. Pulmonary is the adjective referring to lungs. The lungs consist mainly of tiny air-containing sacs called alveoli singular, alveolus , which number approximately 300 million in the adult. The alveoli are the sites of gas exchange with the blood. The airways are all the tubes through which air flows between the external environment and the alveoli. Inspiration inhalation is the movement of air from the external...

Instrumentation in Total Knee Arthroplasty

In the early 1970s the total condylar knee arthroplasty was designed at the Hospital for Special Surgery and emphasized the concepts of ligament balance and knee alignment.1 After the introduction of polymethylmethacrylate, there was a rapid increase in design work because the major obstacle of fixation was relieved. Although the knee implant designs continued to undergo refinement, instrumentation lagged significantly behind the design technology. This dichotomy occurred because the emphasis...

Maintenance of Upright Posture and Balance

The skeleton supporting the body is a system of long bones and a many-jointed spine that cannot stand erect against the forces of gravity without the support given by coordinated muscle activity. The muscles that maintain upright posture that is, support the body's weight against gravity are controlled by the brain and by reflex mechanisms that are wired into the neural networks of the brainstem and spinal cord. Many of the reflex pathways previously introduced for example, the stretch and...

Visual Acuity and Sensitivity

While reading or similarly viewing objects in daylight, each eye is oriented so that the image falls within a tiny area of the retina called the fovea centralis. The fovea is a pinhead-sized pit fovea pit within a yellow area of the retina called the macula lutea. The pit is formed as a result of the displacement of neural layers around the periphery therefore, light falls directly on photoreceptors in the center fig. 10.41 . Light falling on other areas, by contrast, must pass through several...

Effect of Exercise and High Altitude on Respiratory Function

The arterial blood gases and pH do not significantly change during moderate exercise because ventilation increases during exercise to keep pace with the increased metabolism. Adjustments are also made at high altitude in both the control of ventilation and the oxygen transport ability of the blood to permit adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Figure 16.41 The effect of exercise on arterial blood gases and pH. Notice that there are no consistent or significant changes in these...

Leydig Cell Development

Leydig cells were first described by the German histologist Franz Leydig in 1850 1 . In all mammalian species, Leydig cells are located in the interstitial compartment of the testis, between and surrounding the seminiferous tubules 2 . Human Leydig cells are epithelioid and ovoid or polygonal. Other cytological features include eosinophilic cytoplasm, euchromatic round eccentric nuclei with a peripheral distribution of heterochro-matin, and conspicuous nucleolus. The predominant cytoplasmic...

Mechanical Events of the Cardiac Cycle

The orderly process of depolarization described in the previous sections triggers a recurring cardiac cycle of atrial and ventricular contractions and relaxations Figure 14-24 . For orientation, we shall first merely name the parts of this cycle and their key events. Then we shall go through the cycle again, this time describing the pressure and volume changes that cause the events. The cycle is divided into two major phases, both named for events in the ventricles the period of ventricular...

Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates Lipids and Proteins

Polysaccharides and polypeptides are hydrolyzed into their subunits. These subunits enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal villi and are secreted into blood capillaries. Fat is emulsified by the action of bile salts, hydrolyzed into fatty acids and monoglycerides,and absorbed into the intestinal epithelial cells. Once inside the cells, triglycerides are resynthesized and combined with proteins to form particles that are secreted into the lymphatic fluid. The caloric energy value of food...

Chemoreceptors in the Medulla

The chemoreceptors most sensitive to changes in the arterial PCO2 are located in the ventral area of the medulla oblongata, near the exit of the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. These chemoreceptor neurons are anatomically separate from, but synaptically communicate with, the neurons of the respiratory control center in the medulla. An increase in arterial PCO2 causes a rise in the H concentration of the blood as a result of increased carbonic acid concentrations. The H in the blood, however,...

Tyrosine Kinase Second Messenger System

Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid transport and stimulates glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis in its target organs primarily the liver, skeletal muscles, and adipose tissue. These effects are achieved by means of a mechanism of action that is quite complex, and in some ways still incompletely understood. Nevertheless, it is known that insulin's mechanism of action bears similarities to the mechanism of action of other regulatory molecules known as growth factors. These growth factors,...

The Victim S Injured Extremities Were Immobilized Before Transport. Immobilized Means

During a triathlon, paramedics responded to a scene with multiple patients involved in a serious bicycle accident. B.R., a 20-year-old woman, lost control of her bike while descending a hill at approximately 40 mph. As she fell, two other cyclists collided with her, sending all three crashing to the ground. At the scene, B.R. complained of pain in her head, back, chest, and leg. She also had numbness and tingling in her legs and feet. Other injuries included a cut on her face and on her right...

Synergistic and Permissive Effects

When two or more hormones work together to produce a particular result, their effects are said to be synergistic. These effects may be additive or complementary. The action of epinephrine and norepinephrine on the heart is a good example of an additive effect. Each of these hormones separately produces an increase in cardiac rate acting together in the same concentrations, they stimulate an even greater increase in car- diac rate. The synergistic action of FSH and testosterone is an example of...

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

Physiologic and compressive cubital tunnel syndromes have been described. Compressive cubital syndrome may have acute, subacute, or chronic presentation. Normal loss in volume and increased pressure within the tunnel during elbow flexion result in physiologic cubital tunnel syndrome. This can be seen in ''sleep palsy,'' as the arm is held in flexion for prolonged periods of time. Blunt trauma to the cubital tunnel is a typical cause of acute external compression syndrome of the ulnar nerve....

Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues

The distribution of extracellular fluid between the plasma and interstitial compartments is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Tissue fluid is not normally a stagnant pond rather, it is a continuously circulating medium, formed from and returning to the vascular system. In this way, the tissue cells receive a continuously fresh supply of glucose and other plasma solutes that are filtered through tiny endothelial channels in the capillary walls. Filtration results from blood pressure within the...

Extrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow

The term extrinsic regulation refers to control by the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system. Angiotensin II, for example, directly stimulates vascular smooth muscle to produce generalized vasoconstriction. Antidiuretic hormone ADH also has a vasoconstrictor effect at high concentrations this is why it is also called vasopressin. This vasopressor effect of ADH is not believed to be significant under physiological conditions in humans. Stimulation of the sympathoadrenal system produces...

Endocrine Functions of the Placenta

The placenta secretes both steroid hormones and protein hormones. The protein hormones include chorionic gonadotropin hCG and chorionic somatomammotropin hCS , both of which have actions similar to those of some anterior pituitary hormones table 20.7 . Chorionic gonadotropin has LH-like effects, as previously described it also has thyroid-stimulating ability, like pituitary TSH. Chorionic somatomammotropin likewise has actions that are similar to two pituitary hormones growth hormone and...

Clinical Indications Background

Clinical indications for noninvasive vascular diagnostic modalities have increased in the last ten years due to rapid developments in technology and subsequent improvements of spatial resolution. Improvements in imaging of intracranial vessels have occurred in large part due the possibility to acquire larger volumes. Major advantages of MRA over CTA for the study of intracranial circulation are that it is less invasive, is not entirely dependent on the need for contrast media, and permits...

Review Activities

TestYour Knowledge ofTerms and Facts a. rise in insulin rise in glucagon b. fall in insulin rise in glucagon c. rise in insulin fall in glucagon d. fall in insulin fall in glucagon 3. growth a. increased protein hormone synthesis increased 4. thyroxine cell respiration 5. hydrocortisone b. protein catabolism in muscles gluconeogenesis in liver c. protein synthesis in muscles decreased glucose utilization d. fall in blood glucose increased fat synthesis 6. A lowering of blood glucose...

Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion

Insulin and glucagon secretion is largely regulated by the plasma concentrations of glucose and, to a lesser degree, of amino acids. The alpha and beta cells, therefore, act as both the sensors and effectors in this control system. Since the plasma concentration of glucose and amino acids rises during the absorption of a meal and falls during fasting, the secretion of insulin and glucagon likewise fluctuates between the absorptive and postabsorptive states. These changes in insulin and...

Insulin and Glucagon Postabsorptive State

The plasma glucose concentration is maintained surprisingly constant during the fasting, or postabsorptive, state because of the secretion of glucose from the liver. This glucose is derived from the processes of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, which are promoted by a high secretion of glucagon coupled with a low secretion of insulin. Glucagon stimulates and insulin suppresses the hydrolysis of liver glycogen, or glycogenolysis. Thus during times of fasting, when glucagon secretion is high...

Circulatory Changes During Exercise

While the vascular resistance in skeletal muscles decreases during exercise, the resistance to flow through the visceral organs and skin increases. This increased resistance occurs because of vasoconstriction stimulated by adrenergic sympathetic fibers, and it results in decreased rates of blood flow through these organs. During exercise, therefore, the blood flow to skeletal muscles increases because of three simultaneous changes 1 increased total blood flow cardiac output 2 metabolic...

Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap

This technique was described by Taylor et al. in 1983 35 . It is an excellent method for closing a large perineal defect. Based on the inferior epigastric artery and vein, it may be passed into the pelvis to close the pelvic floor and fill the dead space. It is best employed pro-phylactically in high risk patients at the time of proc-tectomy when potential perineal wound problems are anticipated 17 , or at the time of abdominoperineal excision for a large neoplasm 34 when extensive perineal...

Intrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow

Intrinsic, or built-in, mechanisms within individual organs provide a localized regulation of vascular resistance and blood flow. Intrinsic mechanisms are classified as myogenic or metabolic. Some organs, the brain and kidneys in particular, utilize these intrinsic mechanisms to maintain relatively constant flow rates despite wide fluctuations in blood pressure. This ability is termed autoregulation. If the arterial blood pressure and flow through an organ are inadequate if the organ is...

Enterohepatic Circulation

In addition to the normal constituents of bile, a wide variety of exogenous compounds drugs are secreted by the liver into the bile ducts table 18.2 . The liver can thus clear the blood of particular compounds by removing them from the blood and excreting them into the intestine with the bile. Molecules that are cleared from the blood by secretion into the bile are eliminated in the feces this is analogous to renal clearance of blood through excretion in the urine chapter 17 . Many compounds...

How To Prepare A Wet Mount

Using a pipette bulb, aspirate a small amount of the Proteus culture with a capillary pipette and place a small drop on a clean microscope slide fig. 3.2, step 1 . 2. Carefully place a clean cover glass see Experiment 3.1, procedure 1 over the drop, trying to avoid bubble formation fig. 3.2, step 2 . The fluid should not leak out from under the edges of the cover glass. If it does, wait until it dries before sealing. 3. If you examine the slide immediately, you need not seal the coverslip....

Transition Point Between Distended And Collapsed Veins

There are no valves between the right atrium and the internal jugular vein. It follows that the degree of distension in the vein equates to the pressure in the right atrium and the venous waveform provides information about cardiac function. The internal jugular vein enters the neck behind the mastoid process. Il runs deep to the sternomastoid muscle before entering the thorax between its sternal and clavicular heads. Because of its deep position the internal jugular vein can only be examined...

Environmental Factors

Until the early 1940s it was assumed that congenital defects were caused primarily by hereditary factors. With the discovery by Gregg that German measles affecting a mother during early pregnancy caused abnormalities in the embryo, it suddenly became evident that congenital malformations in humans could also be caused by environmental factors. In 1961 observations by Lenz linked limb defects to the sedative thalidomide and made it clear that drugs could also cross the placenta and produce birth...

Sequence of Excitation

To reiterate, the SA node is the normal pacemaker for the entire heart. Its depolarization normally generates the current that leads to depolarization of all other cardiac muscle cells, and so its discharge rate determines the heart rate, the number of times the heart contracts per minute. The action potential initiated in the SA node spreads throughout the myocardium, passing from cell to cell by way of gap junctions. The spread Vander et al. Human Physiology The Mechanism of Body Function,...

Angiosperms perform double fertilization

In most angiosperm species, the mature pollen grain consists of two cells, the tube cell and the generative cell. The larger tube cell encloses the much smaller generative cell. Guided by the tube cell nucleus, the pollen tube eventually grows through the megasporangial tissue and reaches the embryo sac. The generative cell meanwhile has undergone one mitotic division and cytokinesis to produce two hap-loid sperm cells. Both of the sperm cells enter the embryo sac, where they are released into...

Hormone Metabolism and Excretion

A hormone's concentration in the plasma depends not only upon its rate of secretion by the endocrine gland but also upon its rate of removal from the blood, either by excretion or by metabolic transformation. The liver and the kidneys are the major organs that excrete or metabolize hormones. The liver and kidneys, however, are not the only routes for eliminating hormones. Sometimes the hormone is metabolized by the cells upon which it acts. Very importantly, in the case of peptide hormones,...

Reciprocal Innervation and the Crossed Extensor Reflex

In the knee-jerk and other stretch reflexes, the sensory neuron that stimulates the motor neuron of a muscle also stimulates interneu-rons within the spinal cord via collateral branches. These interneu-rons inhibit the motor neurons of antagonist muscles via inhibitory postsynaptic potentials IPSPs . This dual stimulatory and inhibitory activity is called reciprocal innervation fig. 12.29 . When a limb is flexed, for example, the antagonistic extensor muscles are passively stretched. Extension...

Suprapubic Transvesical Prostatectomy

Following the induction of satisfactory general or regional anesthesia, the operating table should be gently flexed in the modified Trendelenburg position. Care must be taken to avoid injudicious flexion that might induce a sacral stretch injury. When properly performed, this simple position change facilitates exposure within the narrow male pelvis and permits more facile mobilization of the peritoneal reflection. At this point, thigh-high anti-embolism stockings should be placed along with...