Prostate and Testes

Prolactin normally stimulates cell growth in the prostate gland probably through direct as well as through androgen-mediated mechanisms , although it is unclear what impact hyperprolactinemia may have on the prostate gland in humans. In animal studies high prolactin results in prostate gland inflammation and abnormal cell growth Reiter et al. 1999 . In men benign prostatic hypertrophy is associated with increased prolactin in some but not all studies Saroff et al. 1980 . Prolactin levels...

Mechanisms by Which the Atypical Antipsychotic Agents May Cause Diabetes Mellitus

There are a number of ways in which the atypical antipsychotic medications could lead to hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. As discussed earlier in this chapter, decreased sensitivity increased resistance to insulin and decreased insulin secretion as a result of decreased beta cell function are involved in the development of type II diabetes mellitus. A few controlled studies suggest that the atypical antipsychotic medications affect insulin resistance rather than causing a primary defect in...

Patterns of Substance Abuse Among Persons With Schizophrenia

Overall, it is clear that substance use disorders in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia occur more frequently than in the general population however, there is little evidence to suggest that persons with schizophrenia abuse substances for different reasons than the general population. Specifically, the literature demonstrates that patients with schizophrenia do not differentially choose to abuse specific drugs to ameliorate specific psychic states e.g., anhedonia . Multiple studies also...