Post Iv Contrast

Hypophysitis Mri

Lymphocytic hypophysitis with cavernous sinus extension presenting in a male. Enhanced T1 MRI axial A and coronal B, facing . fibrosis, depending on the chronicity of the condition. Several lines of evidence suggest that this process has an autoimmune basis 177-180 . First, the cellular infiltrate present in affected glands is similar to other autoimmune reactions occurring in other organs. Antipituitary antibodies have been identified in the serum of some patients with the condition....

Preoperative Workup

Sagittal Mri Hypothalamus Germinal Tumor

Once the need for surgery has been determined the minimum surgical workup for every patient includes the following. 1. First, the surgeon and the endocrinologist must be sure of an accurate endocrine diagnosis before proceeding with surgery. In cases of hormone excess, it is essential to have adequate evidence of a pituitary source. It should not be assumed that all referring physicians will have completed the appropriate tests before referral. Aside from the risks to the patient of unnecessary...

Empty Sella Syndrome

The term empty sella refers to the anatomic state occurring as the result of intrasellar herniation of the subarachnoid space through an incompetent and enlarged diaphragma sellae. The result is a compressed and posteriorly displaced pituitary gland housed within an enlarged and demineralized sella. These features lend a seemingly empty appearance to the sella, both grossly and radio-graphically. It is of clinical, pathophysiologic, and occasionally therapeutic importance to distinguish those...

Diagnosis of Cushings Syndrome

Cushing Algorithm

Determination of 24-h UFC excretion is the best screening test available for documentation of endogenous hypercortisolism 52,53 . Values consistently in excess of200 g d 550 nmol are virtually diagnostic of CS Fig. 2 . Medications or synthetic steroids other than cortisol do not interfere with the performance of high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC in measuring urinary cortisol. Assuming complete collections have been performed, there are virtually no false-negative results. In patients...

Complications of the Transsphenoidal Approach

Mri Scan Aneurysm

The transsphenoidal approach is safe and has a low complication rate. In fact, it is one of the safest procedures in contemporary neurosurgical practice. As determined by several retrospective cumulative series, operative mortality and major morbidity rates are 0.5 and 2.2 , respectively 6 . In one of the most recent series of transsphenoidal surgeries performed for CD during the current decade, mortality and permanent morbidity rates were 0.9 and 1.8 , respectively 7 . Operative deaths, though...

Clinical Features Of Prolactinoma

The clinical features of prolactinoma are attributable to three main factors hyperprolactinemia, space occupation by the tumor, and varying degrees of hypopituitarism Table 1 . The individual clinical picture will be determined by the gender and age of the patient and the tumor size. In brief, hyperprolactinemia stimulates milk production, particularly from the estrogen-primed breast, and inhibits hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH release, which leads to hypogonadotropic...