Centipedes And Millipedes

Types of animal science Anatomy, classification, reproduction Fields of study Anatomy, invertebrate biology, zoology Over twelve thousand species of the arthropods centipedes and millipedes are known. Centipedes are carnivorous, and millipedes are usually vegetarians. diplosomite millipede trunk segment, formed by the fusion of two body segments mandibles jaws of insects and other arthropods nocturnal active at night palp oral sensory organs of arthropods Centipedes and millipedes are somewhat...

Sequestration

Stink Badger Pictures

The production of chemical defenses is often assumed to be expensive because it requires resources that might otherwise have been used for growth and reproduction. One way for a species to avoid such cost is to sequester compounds produced by its prey. Sequestration was first discovered in the monarch butterfly. Monarch caterpillars feed on milkweeds and sequester the plant's cardenolides. Milkweeds produce toxic cardenolides that deter most vertebrate herbivores, but monarchs have evolved the...

Parrots

How Parakeets Lay Eggs Diagram

Parrot species include macaws, cockatoos, true parrots, parakeets, and lories. They are kept as pets for their beautiful coloring and ability to learn to talk. plumage the feathers of birds zygodactyl having two toes pointing backward and two toes pointing forward The hundreds of parrot species are vivid-colored members of the bird family Psitta-cidae. They belong to five classes macaws, cockatoos, true parrots, parakeets, and lories. In parrot plumage, reds and greens often predominate, but...

Pairbonding

How Chimpanzees Mate

Pair-bonding is the formation of attachments or relationships of various durations for purposes of reproduction and care of the young, relationships that may appear analogous to marriage and family in humans. bond, bonding the tie or relationship between opposite-sex partners in a pair bond bonding behaviors behavior patterns that establish, maintain, or strengthen the pair bond consort pair, consortsmp a temporarily bonded pair within a polygamous group long-term pair bond pair bonding that...

The Midbrain and the Forebrain

The midbrain is the second major region of the brain. The midbrain's dorsal aspect, called the tectum, is a target for some of the auditory and visual information that an animal receives. The paired inferior colliculi form the lower half of the tectum. They help to coordinate auditory reflexes to relay acoustic signals to the cerebrum. The two superior colliculi, the other half of the tectum, assist the localization in space of visual stimuli by causing appropriate eye and trunk movements. In...

Octopus The Master Deceiver

Some animals such as chameleons and anoles, which are mistakenly called chameleons are famous for changing their color to match the background. Anoles can change from whitish to gray, brown, or green to match the sand, branches, or foliage where they rest. Some fish can go one better, creating complex disruptive color patterns to match different kinds of blotchy sand, rock, or coral backgrounds. The master of deception, however, is the octopus. No vertebrate can match the octopus in terms of...

Life Cycle of Chameleons

Exceptions include pygmy stump-tailed chameleons, which are small, ground-living, and lack prehensile tails. Male chameleons are territorial. In many cases, male invaders of a territory are fought actively and the battle ends in the death of one male. In some cases, the combat is ritual, though the male who is faced down leaves. Males and females are solitary, coming together only to mate. Most color changes indicate breeding intentions, pregnancy, or, on the part...

Centipede Facts

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Bilateria Phylum Arthropoda Subphylum Uniramia Class Chilopoda Centipedes Families Geophilidae soil centipedes , Litho-biidae stone centipedes , Scolopendridae tropical centipedes , Scutigeridae house centipedes Geographical location Worldwide, in temperate, warm, or tropical regions Habitat Under stones, logs, leaves, other ground litter in human habitations Gestational period Eggs hatch in two to four weeks Life span Six to ten years Special anatomy Sensory...

Tails

Types of animal science Anatomy, evolution, physiology Fields of study Anatomy, conservation biology, developmental biology, entomology, evolutionary science, herpetology, invertebrate biology The tail is a prolongation of the animal body that serves the animal as a means of defense, locomotion, stabilization, or ornament. arboreal living in trees burrowing insectivore an insect-eating animal that usually lives in nests formed by digging holes or tunnels in the ground invertebrate animals...

Prion and Fungal Diseases

A very unusual kind of infectious pathogen is an abnormal protein called a prion, not associated with either DNAor RNA. Neurodegenerative diseases such as scrapie in sheep and bovine spon-giform encephalopathy BSE, or mad cow disease , as well as kuru and Creutzfeld-Jacob disease in humans, are prion diseases. The abnormal protein is a refolded form of a normal brain protein, and prions cause the normal proteins to fold into the prion form in brains of infected individuals. Prions are very...

Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

Born August 1, 1744 Bazentin-le-Petit, Picardy, France Died December 18, 1829 Paris, France Fields of study Evolutionary science, invertebrate biology, paleontology, zoology Contribution Lamarck established the division of animal life into the vertebrate and invertebrate categories, and he formulated an evolutionary theory based on the premise that acquired traits are inheritable. After studying briefly for the priesthood at the Jesuit seminary in Amiens, Jean-Baptiste de Monet, chevalier de...

Seals And Walruses

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, ethology, genetics, marine biology, physiology Essentially aquatic, warm-blooded mammals, seals and though most of them gravitate to the colder areas. against evil carnivores meat-eating animals circumpolar regions the regions around the North and South Poles mollusks a phylum of aquatic invertebrates, usually shelled, such as clams, mussels, and squid muzzle the area around the nose and mouth of an animal pinnipeds web-footed...

The Life Cycle of Marsupials

Marsupials, as mammals, have milk-producing glands and suckle their young. They reproduce similarly to nearly all other mammals One or more eggs, produced internally by the female, are fertilized internally by the male and develop within the female's body. After a period of developmental stages lasting weeks or months, the fertilized egg becomes an embryo, then a fetus, and finally is ready to be born. Marsupials differ because after only a short development period, the young fetus leaves the...

The Hibernation Inducement Trigger

Scientists studying hibernation note that the hibernation inducement trigger HIT springs into action in three specific circumstances, occurring singly or in combination when the days grow shorter in autumn, restricting the amount of light to which organisms are subjected when temperatures drop, which often happens when the days grow shorter and when food becomes scarce. Questions about how HIT works have increased rather than decreased in recent years. Blood extracted from squirrels during...

Endocrine Control of Pregnancy Parturition and Lactation

During an ovarian cycle, a pregnancy can occur if the ovum becomes fertilized. The events that occur during pregnancy are also controlled by hormones. In mammals, fertilization normally occurs in the oviduct. When the fertilized embryo is implanted in the uterus, it is nourished as a result of the glandular and vascular buildup of the uterine wall. This buildup is maintained by estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum. As the embryo grows, it begins to produce a portion of the...

Migration and Eating Habits

All antelope are herbivores vegetarians . They usually travel slowly within the security of their herds. Because of their numbers, they can anticipate danger as they travel and avoid it when it is imminent. As they move through their habitats, some species, such as the wildebeest also called the gnu , graze on the grass of the savannas in which they usually live. Species whose habitat is in forests tend to eat the leaves and slender branches of trees, often standing on their hind legs to reach...

Ichthyosaur Facts

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Craniata Class Reptilia Subclass Lepidosauria Order Ichthyopterygia Family Ophthalmosauria Genus and species Ophthalmosaurus icenicus Geographical location Oceans of the Mesozoic Era Habitat Marine Gestational period Unknown Life span Unknown Special anatomy Limbs transformed to flippers wings that employ hyperphalangy to elongate flipper reevolve dorsal fin and tail fluke in some smooth skin without scales rostrum elongate with conical labyrinthodont...

Dog Wolf and Coyote Facts

Wolves Natural Habitat

Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Metazoa Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Subclass Eutheria Order Carnivora Suborder Canoidea Family Canidae Genus and species Ten genera and thirty-five species, including Canis familiaris domestic dog , C. lupus gray wolf , C. rufus red wolf , C. latrans coyote Geographical location Dogs live on every continent except Antarctica wolves are not found in Africa, South America, and Australia coyotes live only in North and Central America Habitat...

Chameleon Facts

Family Chamaeleontidae chameleons Genera Chamaleo twenty-four species , Brookesia four subgenera, eight species Geographical location Madagascar, Africa, Asia, and Europe Habitat Land-dwellers mostly arboreal, though some live on the ground Gestational period Females lay ten to sixty fertilized eggs, which hatch on their own Life span Five to ten years Special anatomy Eyes that rotate 360 degrees, zygodactyl feet, prehensile tails, spearlike horns for mating and combat, long sticky tongues...

Porcupine Life Cycle

Adult porcupines are solitary mammals for most of the year, except during the breeding season, between September and November. Female porcupines begin reproductive activities at about 1.5 years of age. It is common to find several males around a female during her brief eight- to twelve-hour time of receptivity. Mating is brief and occurs on the ground, with the female raising her tail over her back. After the male has inseminated her, each porcupine goes its separate way. Usually only one...

Owls

Pygmy Owl Catching Prey

Any of the Strigiformes, a group of birds with highly specialized characteristics for nocturnal activity, including soft feathers and enhanced hearing and eyesight. asymmetrical ears in some species of owls, the ears are of unequal size and located unequally on the sides of the head asynchronous an uneven event in hawks and owls, the staggered hatching of eggs that results in a nest of different-aged young facial disk the distinctive concentric circles of feathers that encircle the eyes of...

Factors Affecting Metabolic Rate

One of the most important factors that affects metabolic rate is the temperature of the organism, since within limits all chemical reactions of metabolism proceed faster at higher temperatures. The internal temperature of most invertebrate an imals, fish, and amphibians is the same as the temperature of the environment in which they live. Such organisms are called poikilotherms. In poikilothermic organisms, metabolic rate increases as the environmental temperature increases. Such organisms move...

Chickens Turkeys Pheasant And Quail

Type of animal science Classification Fields of study Anatomy, zoology The chicken, turkey, pheasant, and quail are related members of the family Phasianidae. Chickens are probably the most numerous bird in the world. chicks baby birds from chickens, turkeys, pheasant, or quail clutch a group of eggs in a nest cock male chicken, pheasant, or quail cockerel young male chicken, pheasant, egg a round, hard-shelled object produced by the female bird that may produce offspring, but is often used as...

Chameleons

Types of animal science Anatomy, classification, reproduction Fields of study Anatomy, zoology Chameleons, the family Chamaeleontidae, have long, sticky tongues to capture prey. Other unique characteristics include eyes that operate independently of each other, leaflike body shapes, ability to change skin color, zygodactyly, and prehensile tails. arboreal dwelling in trees chromatophore a color-causing cell cold-blooded animals whose body temperatures equal the temperature of their surroundings...

The Life Cycle of Hyenas

Hyenas Life Cycle

There are similarities and differences in hyena species lives. Spotted hyenas form groups of up to The spotted hyena's maniacal, eerie cry has led to it being called the laughing hyena. Digital Stock one hundred a few males, many females, and numerous young. Females conceive year round, birthing two or three pups that can see and run immediately, after a four-month gestation. Females, larger than males, select short-term mates. Striped hyenas fight within groups, sometimes killing group...