Key Clinical Terms

Acromegaly Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, ak-ro-MEG-a-le caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult. The name comes from acro meaning extremity and megal o meaning enlargement. acromegaly Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, ak-ro-MEG-a-le caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult. The name comes from acro meaning extremity and megal o meaning enlargement. A disease resulting from deficiency of...

Chapter Review 151

Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number _ 1. clitoris a. muscle of the uterus _ 2. myometrium b. fallopian tube _ 3. oviduct c. release of an egg from the ovary _ 4. ovulation d. external female genitalia _ 5. vulva e. female erectile tissue 9. gynecogenic 10. menostasis a. producing female characteristics e. removal of the entire uterus outermost layer of the embryo sac that holds the fetus period of development in the uterus fertilized egg lack of...

Pregnancy and Birth

AGA Appropriate for gestational age AI Artificial insemination C section Cesarean section CPD Cephalopelvic disproportion D amp E Dilatation and evacuation EDC Estimated date of confinement GIFT Gamete intrafallopian transfer HCG Human chorionic gonadotropin NICU Neonatal intensive care unit PIH Pregnancy-induced hypertension SVD Spontaneous vaginal delivery VBAC Vaginal birth after cesarean section ZIFT Zygote intrafallopian transfer

Wounds

Wounds are caused by trauma, such as in cases of accidents or attacks, or by surgery and other therapeutic or diagnostic procedures. Wounds may affect not only the injured area but also other body systems. Infection and hemorrhage may complicate wounds, as do dehiscence, disruption of the wound layers, and evisceration, protrusion of internal organs through the lesion. As a wound heals, fluid and cells drain from the damaged tissue. This drainage, called exudate, may be clear, bloody sanguinous...

Drugs Used in Treatment

Activating Ssri

A psychotropic drug is one that acts on the mental state. This category of drugs includes antianxiety drugs or anxiolytics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, also called neuroleptics. A form of dementia caused by atrophy of the cerebral cortex presenile dementia A starchlike substance of unknown composition that accumulates in the brain in Alzheimer and other diseases A localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel that results from weakness of the vessel wall see Fig. 17-8...

Vascular Disorders

Cerebral Aneurysm Pathophysiology

The term cerebrovascular accident CVA , or stroke, applies to any occurrence that deprives brain tissue of oxygen. These events include blockage in a vessel that supplies the brain, a ruptured blood vessel, or some other damage that leads to hemorrhage within the brain. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries, after cancer and heart attack myocardial infarction , and is a leading cause of neurologic disability. Risk factors for a stroke include hypertension,...

The Immune System

Agglutinated Blood Cells

Our bodies have an array of defenses against foreign matter. Some of these defenses are nonspecific, that is, they protect against any intruder. Such defenses include the unbroken skin, blood-filtering lymphoid tissue, cilia and mucus that trap foreign material, bactericidal body secretions, and reflexes such as coughing and sneezing. Specific attacks on disease organisms are mounted by the immune system. The immune response involves complex interactions between components of the lymphatic...

Infectious Diseases

Mons Pubis Infection

Infectious diseases are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi yeasts and molds , protozoa single-celled animals , and worms Display 6-1 . In shape, bacteria may be round cocci, Fig. 6-1 , rod-shaped bacilli, Fig. 6-2 , or curved vibrios and spirochetes, see Fig. 6-2 . They may be named according to their shape and by the arrangements they form see Fig. 6-1 . They also are described according to the dyes they take up when stained in the laboratory. The most common laboratory bacterial stain is the...

Thyroid

Rubin Farber Pathology

Because thyroid hormone affects the growth and function of many tissues, a deficiency of this hormone in infancy causes physical and mental retardation as well as other symptoms that together constitute congenital hypothyroidism, formerly called cretinism. In the adult, thyroid deficiency causes myxedema, in which there is weight gain, lethargy, rough, dry skin, and facial swelling. Both of these conditions are easily treated with thyroid hormone. Most U.S. states now require testing of...

Hearing Loss

Hearing impairment may result from disease, injury, or developmental problems that affect the ear itself or any nervous pathways concerned with the sense of hearing. Sensorineural hearing loss results from damage to the eighth cranial nerve or to central auditory pathways. Heredity, toxins, exposure to loud noises, and the aging process are possible causes for this type of hearing loss. It may range from inability to hear certain frequencies of sound to a complete loss of hearing deafness ....

Box 161 Are You In a Good Humor

Medical Terms Pictures

In ancient times, people accepted the theory that a person's state of health depended on the balance of four body fluids. These fluids, called humors, were yellow bile, black bile, phlegm, and blood. A predominance of any one of these humors would determine a person's mood or temperament. Yellow bile caused anger black bile caused depression phlegm mucus made a person sluggish blood resulted in cheerfulness and optimism. Although we no longer believe in humoral-ism, we still have adjectives in...

Autism

Autism is a complex disorder of unknown cause that usually appears before age 3. It is marked by self-absorption and lack of response to social contact and affection. An autistic child may have low intelligence and poor language skills. He or she responds inappropriately to stimuli and may show self-destructive behavior. There may also be stereotyped repetitive behavior, preoccupations, and resistance to change. Criteria for clinical diagnosis of these and other behavioral and mental disorders...

Platelets

The blood platelets thrombocytes are fragments of larger cells formed in the bone marrow. They number from 200,000 to 400,000 per L of blood. Platelets are important in hemostasis, the prevention of blood loss, a component of which is the process of blood clotting, also known as coagulation. When a vessel is injured, platelets stick together to form a plug at the site. Substances released from the platelets and from damaged tissue then interact with clotting factors in the plasma to produce a...

Cancer

Cannula Ancient Instruments

Methods used in the diagnosis of cancer include physical examination, biopsy, imaging techniques, and laboratory test results for abnormalities, or markers, associated with specific types of malignancies. Some cancer markers are byproducts, such as enzymes, hormones, and cellular proteins, that are abnormal or slender, flexible instrument for exploring and dilating tubes tube enclosing a trocar see below that allows escape of fluid or air after removal of the trocar spoon-shaped instrument for...

Key Terms The

Adjustment of the curvature of the lens to allow for vision at various The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the anterior The dark, vascular, middle layer of the eye part of the uvea see Normal Structure and Function, continued The muscular portion of the uvea that surrounds the lens and adjusts its shape for near and far vision root cycl o A specialized cell in the retina of the eye that responds to light cones have high visual acuity, function in bright light, and can...

Herbal Sleeping Potion Was Mixed Into Tea And Taken At Bedtime

Case Study 8-1 Cardiac Disease and Crisis P.L., who has a 4-year history of heart disease, was brought to the emergency room by ambulance with chest pain that radiated down her arm, dyspnea, and syncope. Her routine meds included Lanoxin to slow and strengthen her heart beat, Inderal to support her heart rhythm, Lipitor to decrease her cholesterol, Catapres to lower her hypertension, nitroglycerin prn for chest pain, Hydro-DIURIL to eliminate fluid and decrease the workload of her heart,...

Infection

Lumbar Puncture

Inflammation of the meninges, or meningitis, is usually caused by bacteria that enter through the ear, nose, or throat or are carried by the blood. One of these organisms, the meningococcus Neisseria meningitidis , is responsible for epidemics of meningitis among individuals living in close quarters. Other bacteria implicated in cases of meningitis include Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. A stiff neck is a common symptom. The presence of pus or lymphocytes...

Skin Cancer

Skin Medical Terminology

Skin cancer is the most common type of human cancer. Its rate has been increasing in recent years, mainly because of the mutation-causing effects of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. Malignant melanoma results from an overgrowth of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the epidermis. It is the most dangerous form of skin cancer because of its tendency to metastasize. This cancer appears as a lesion that is variable in color with an irregular border Fig. 21-5 . It may spread superficially...

Adverse Drug Effects

Most drugs have potential adverse effects or side effects that must be evaluated before being prescribed. In addition, there may be contraindications, or reasons not to use a particular drug for a specific individual based on that person's medical conditions, current medications, sensitivity, or family history. Also, while a patient is under treatment, it is important to be alert for signs of adverse effects such as digestive upset, changes in the blood, or signs of allergy, such as hives or...

Disorders of the Spine

Sealy Mattress For Cervical Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a disease of the spine that appears mainly in males. Joint cartilage is destroyed eventually the disks between the vertebrae calcify and there is fusion of the bones ankylosis Fig. 19-12 . Changes begin low in the spine and progress upward, limiting mobility. In cases of a herniated disk Fig. 19-13 , the central mass nucleus pulposus of an intervertebral disk protrudes through the weakened outer ring anulus fibrosus of the disk into the spinal canal. This commonly...

Cancer of the Female Reproductive Tract

Cone Biopsy

Cancer of the endometrium is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. Women at risk should have biopsies taken regularly because endometrial cancer is not always detected by Pap Papanicolaou smear. Treatment consists of hysterectomy removal of the uterus Fig. 15-9 and sometimes radiation therapy. A small percentage of cases occur after overgrowth hyperplasia of the endometrium. This tissue can be removed by dilation and curettage D amp C , in which the cervix is widened and the...

Clinical Aspects of the Urinary System Infections

Foley Cath Removal Female

Organisms that infect the urinary tract generally enter through the urethra and ascend toward the bladder. Although urinary tract infections UTIs do occur in males, they appear more commonly in females. Infection of the urinary bladder produces cystitis. The infecting organisms are usually colon bacteria carried in feces, particularly Escherichia coli. Cystitis is more common in females than in males because the female urethra is shorter than the male urethra and the opening is closer to the...

R 20 Answer Section

Medical Terminology Images

14. pertaining to muscle and tendon 19. pertaining to muscle and fascia 20. plastic repair of tendo n and muscle 21. polymyositis pol-e-mi -o-SI-tis 23. fasciectomy fash-e-EK-to-me 25. myotenositis mi-o-ten-o-SI-tis LABELING EXERCISE 20-1 SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES, ANTERIOR VIEW 3. orbicularis oculi or-bik-u-LA-ris OK-u-li 5. sternocleidomastoid ster-no-kli-do-MAS-toyd 8. pectoralis pek-to-RA-lis major 9. serratus ser-A-tus anterior 10. biceps brachii BI-seps BRA-ke-I 11. brachioradialis...

Autoimmune Disorders

The diseases discussed below are caused, at least in part, by autoimmune reactions. They are diagnosed by biopsy of lesions and by antibody studies. FIGURE 21-3. Psoriasis. Plaques with scales seen at the front of the knee. Reprinted with permission from Bickley LS. Bate's Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking. 8th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins, 2003. Pemphigus is characterized by the formation of blisters bullae in the skin and mucous membranes caused by a...

Adrenals

Cushing Disease Moon Face Pictures

Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex, or Addison disease, is usually caused by autoimmune destruction of the gland. It may also result from a deficiency of ACTH from the pituitary. The lack of aldosterone results in water loss, low blood pressure, and electrolyte imbalance. There is also weakness, nausea, and increase of brown pigmentation. This last symptom is caused by release of a hormone from the pituitary that stimulates the pigment cells melanocytes in the skin. Once diagnosed, Addison...

Labeling Exercise 161

Chapter The Endocrine System 161

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number b. substance regulated by the parathyroids c. part of the brain that controls the pituitary pancreatic hormone that regulates sugar metabolism hormone produced by the adrenal medulla hormone that produces uterine contractions hormone produced by the adrenal cortex hormone that increases water reabsorption in the kidneys hormone...

Supplementary Terms

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

Apex beat The pulsing of the heart that can be felt over the apex in the fifth left intercostal space between the ribs about 8 to 9 cm from the midline cardiac output The amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute ductus arteri_os_us A vessel between the pulmonary artery and the aorta that bypasses DUK-tus ar-te-fe-O-sus the lungs in fetal circulation. Failure to close after birth is called Normal Structure and Function, continued An opening between the two atria that...

Childbirth

Midsagittal Section

The length of pregnancy, from fertilization of the ovum to birth, is about 38 weeks or 266 days. In practice, it is calculated as approximately 280 days or 40 weeks from the first day of the last menstrual period LMP . FIGURE 15-8. Midsagittal section of a pregnant uterus with intact fetus. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins, 2000. FIGURE 15-8. Midsagittal section of a pregnant...

Chapter Review 111

Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number a. decreased rate and depth of breathing b. accidental inhalation of foreign material into the lungs c. substance that reduces surface tension d. a measure of how easily the lungs expand a. incomplete expansion of lung tissue b. space and organs between the lungs d. opening between the vocal cords a. volume used in pulmonary function tests b. respiratory condition seen most often in newborns d. respiratory...

Case Study - Medical Terminology - 78 Steps Health Journal

Two weeks after his emergency cardiac bypass surgery, R.B. was admitted to the hospital with acute pancreatitis, probably triggered by the trauma of the heart surgery. As a nurse, R.B. knew that the mild form of the disease was self-limiting, whereas severe pancreatitis has a mortality rate near 50 . He was terrified, having survived heart surgery, to now have to worry about multisystem organ failure. He had once cared for a patient who died of necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis. On...

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome CFS involves persistent fatigue of no known cause that may be associated with impaired memory, sore throat, painful lymph nodes, muscle and joint pain, headaches, sleep problems, and immune disorders. The condition often occurs after a viral infection. Epstein-Barr virus the agent that causes mononucleosis , herpesvirus, and other viruses have been suggested as possible causes of CFS. No traditional or alternative therapies have been consistently successful in treating...

Metabolic Bone Diseases

Radiology Signs Bone Disease

Osteoporosis is a loss of bone mass that results in weakening of the bones Fig. 19-8 . A decrease in estrogens after menopause makes women over age 50 most susceptible to the effects of this disorder. Efforts to prevent osteoporosis include adequate intake of calcium and engaging in weight-bearing exercise. Because of safety concerns, hormone replacement therapy HRT is currently being re-evaluated for use in prevention of osteoporosis. Some drugs are available for reducing bone resorption and...

Heart Disease

Patent Ductus Arteriosus Surgery Scar

Coronary artery disease CAD , which results from atherosclerosis of the vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle, is a leading cause of death in industrialized countries see Fig. 9-8 . An early sign of CAD is the type of chest pain known as angina pectoris. This is a feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion. Often there is anxiety, diaphoresis profuse sweating , and dyspnea difficulty in breathing . CAD is...

Fibromyalgia Syndrome

Fibromyalgia syndrome FMS is a difficult-to-diagnose condition involving the muscles. It is associated with widespread muscle aches, tenderness, and stiffness along with fatigue and sleep disorders in the absence of neurologic abnormalities or any other known cause. The disorder may coexist with other chronic diseases, may follow a viral infection, and may involve immune system dysfunction. Treatments for FMS may include a carefully planned exercise program and medication with pain relievers,...

The Vascular System

Figure The Heart Conduction System

Arteries that carry blood away from the heart Fig. 9-5 . Arterioles are small arteries that lead into the capillaries. 2. Capillaries, the smallest vessels, through which exchanges take place between the blood and the tissues. 3. Veins that carry blood back to the heart Fig. 9-6 . The small veins that receive blood from the capillaries and drain into the veins are venules. FIGURE 9-3. Conduction system of the heart. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body...

Abbreviations Used For The Gastrointestinal Systems

Label Digestion Diagram

After study of this chapter you should be able to 1. Explain the function of the digestive system. 2. Label a diagram of the digestive tract, and describe the function of each part. 3. Label a diagram of the accessory organs, and explain the role of each in digestion. 4. Identify and use the roots pertaining to the digestive system. 5. Describe the major disorders of the digestive system. 6. Define medical terms used in reference to the digestive system. 7. Interpret abbreviations used in...

Word Parts Pertaining to Cells Tissues and Organs

Medical Terms

Picture of the chromosomes of a cell organized according to size abnormal formation of fibrous tissue TABLE 4-1 Roots for Cells and Tissues, continued OF EXAMPLE TABLE 4-1 Roots for Cells and Tissues, continued OF EXAMPLE inflammation of a gland that secretes mucus pertaining to the body as compared with the germ cells or the mind FIGURE 4-6. A karyotype of human chromosomes. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memm-ler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia...

Hypertension

High blood pressure, or hypertension HTN , is a contributing factor in all of the conditions described above. In simple terms, hypertension is defined as a systolic pressure greater than 140 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg. Hypertension causes the left ventricle to enlarge hypertrophy as a result of increased work. Some cases of HTN are secondary to other disorders, such as kidney malfunction or endocrine disturbance, but most of the time the causes are unknown, a condition...

Other Endocrine Tissues

Memmlers The Heart And Heart Disease

The thymus, described in Chapter 9, is considered an endocrine gland because it secretes a hormone, thymosin, which stimulates the T lymphocytes of the immune system. The gonads Chapters 14 and 15 are also included because, in addition to producing the sex cells, they secrete hormones. Other organs, including the FIGURE 16-5. Microscopic view of pancreatic cells. Light staining islet cells are seen among the cell clusters that produce digestive juices. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ,...

Cataract

A cataract is an opacity cloudiness of the lens. Causes of cataract include disease, injury, chemicals, and exposure to physical forces, especially the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. The cataracts that frequently appear with age may result from exposure to environmental factors in combination with degeneration attributable to aging. To prevent blindness, the cloudy lens must be removed surgically. Commonly, the anterior capsule of the lens is removed along with the cataract, leaving the...

Lymphatic Disorders

Normal Sinus Rhythm

Changes in the lymphatic system often are related to infection and may consist of inflammation and enlargement of the nodes, called lymphadenitis, or inflammation of the vessels, called lymphangiitis. Obstruction of lymphatic vessels because of surgical excision or infection results in tissue swelling, or lymphedema. Any neo-plastic disease involving lymph nodesis termed lymphoma. These neoplastic disorders affect the white cells found in the lymphatic system, and they are discussed more fully...

Female Reproductive System

Cystocele Rectocele

Infection with the fungus Candida, a common cause of vaginitis Painful or difficult menstruation. A common disorder that may be caused by infection, use of an intrauterine device, endometriosis, overproduction of prostaglandins, or other factors. Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic Condition caused by the spread of infection from the reproductive tract into the pelvic cavity. Commonly caused by sexually transmit ted gonorrhea and chlamydial infections....

Asthma

Attacks of asthma result from narrowing of the bronchial tubes. This constriction, along with edema swelling of the bronchial linings and accumulation of mucus, results in wheezing, extreme dyspnea difficulty in breathing , and cyanosis. Asthma is most common in children. Although its causes are uncertain, a main factor is irritation caused by allergy. Heredity may also play a role. Treatment of asthma includes removal of allergens, administration of bronchodilators to widen the airways, and...

Suffixes Beginning With rh

When a suffix beginning with rh is added to a root, the r is doubled hem o blood -rhage bursting forth hemorrhage a bursting forth of blood men o menses -rhea flow, discharge menorrhea menstrual flow An abbreviation formed from the first letter of each word in a phrase An abbreviation formed from the first letter of each word in a phrase A word root in combination with a vowel used to link the root with a suffix. Combining forms are shown with a slash between the root and the vowel, as in neur...

An Oblique Surgical Incision Follows What Direction

Case Study 14-1 Herniorrhaphy and Vasectomy E.D., a 48-year-old married dock worker with three children, developed inguinal bulging and pain on exertion when he lifted heavy objects. An occupational health service advised a surgical referral. The surgeon diagnosed E.D. with bilateral direct inguinal hernias and suggested that he not delay surgery, although he was not at high risk for a strangulated hernia. E.D. asked the surgeon if he could also be sterilized at the same time. He was scheduled...

Congenital Disorders

Meningocele And Myelomeningocele

Congenital disorders are those present at birth birth defects . They fall into two categories developmental disorders that occur during growth of the fetus and hereditary familial disorders that can be passed from parents to children through the germ cells. Genetic disorders are caused by a mutation change in the genes or chromosomes of the cells. They may involve changes in the number or structure of the chromosomes or changes in single or multiple genes. The appearance and severity of genetic...

G.l A 42-years-old Obese

G.L., a 42-year-old obese Caucasian woman, entered the hospital with nausea and vomiting, flatulence and eructation, a fever of 100.5 F, and continuous right upper quadrant and subscapular pain. Examination on admission showed rebound tenderness in the RUQ with a positive Murphy sign. Her skin, nails, and conjunctivae were yellowish, and she complained of frequent clay-colored stools. Her leukocyte count was 16,000. An ERCP and ultrasound of the abdomen suggested many small stones in her...

Exercise

Peritoneal Dialysis

Identify and define the prefix in each of the following words 1. amorphous without form root morph o a- not, without, lack of, absence a-MOR-fus Add a prefix to form the negative of each of the following words 12. permeable capable of being penetrated Many prefixes catch on rapidly as a form of shorthand. In everyday life, the prefix e-for electronic has spread to words such as e-mail, e-commerce, e-Bay, and many more. X- for extreme appears in X-games and other X-sports. The prefix endo- in...

Removal of Urine

Interior The Urinary Bladder

Urine is drained from the renal pelvis and carried by the ureter to the urinary bladder Fig. 13-4 . Urine is stored in the bladder until fullness stimulates a reflex contraction of the bladder muscle and expulsion of urine through the urethra. The female urethra is short 4 cm 1.5 in and carries only urine. The male urethra is longer 20 cm 8 in and carries both urine and semen. The voiding release of urine, technically called micturition or urination, is regulated by two sphincters circular...

MjJ Key Terms

Usually means the lower narrow portion neck of the uterus cervix uteri U-ter-i root cervic o . A small erectile body in front of the urethral opening that is similar in origin to the penis root clitor o, clitorid o The small yellow structure that develops from the graafian follicle after ovulation and secretes progesterone and estrogen A group of hormones that produces female characteristics and pre- pares the uterus for the fertilized egg. The most active of these is A hormone secreted...

The Nephrons

Nephron Anatomy

The tiny working units of the kidneys are the nephrons Fig. 13-3 . Each of these microscopic structures is basically a single tubule coiled and folded into various shapes. At the beginning of the tubule is the cup-shaped Bowman capsule, which is part of the blood-filtering device of the nephron. The tubule then folds into the proximal convoluted tubule, straightens out to form the loop of Henle, coils again into the distal convoluted tubule, and then finally straightens out to form a collecting...

Labeling Exercise 202

Teres Minor

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Gastrocnemius Gluteus maximus Latissimus dorsi Peroneus longus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Sternocleidomastoid Teres major Teres minor Trapezius Triceps brachii Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number b. triangular muscle that covers the shoulder c. one of the hamstring muscles d. anterior muscle of the upper arm that flexes the forearm e. large muscle group of...

The Lymphatic System

Path Lymph Through Body

The lymphatic system is a widely distributed system with multiple functions Fig. 9-7 . Its role in circulation is to return excess fluid and proteins from the tissues to the bloodstream. The fluid carried in the lymphatic system is called lymph. Lymph drains from the lower part of the body and the upper left side into the An eponym is a name that is based on the name of a person, usually the one who discovered a particular structure, disease, principle, or procedure. Everyday examples are...

Clinical Aspects Immunity

Hypersensitivity is a harmful overreaction of the immune system, commonly known as allergy. In cases of allergy, a person is more sensitive to a particular antigen than the average individual. Common allergens are pollen, animal dander, dust, and foods, but there are many more. A seasonal allergy to inhaled pollens is commonly called hay fever. Responses may include itching, redness or tearing of the eyes conjunctivitis , skin rash, asthma, runny nose rhinitis , sneezing, urticaria hives , and...

The Brain

Cranial Parts

The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain Fig. 17-3 . It is composed largely of white matter with a thin outer layer of gray matter, the cerebral cortex. It is within the cortex that the higher brain functions of memory, reasoning, and abstract thought occur. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres by a deep groove, the longitudinal fissure. Each hemisphere is further divided into lobes with specialized functions. The diencephalon contains the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the...

Key Terms

Eyelid Medical Terminology

Sudden, severe having a short course Not recurrent or malignant favorable for recovery describing tumors that do A malignant neoplasm composed of epithelial cells from Greek root carcino, meaning crab adjective, carcinomatous Of long duration progressing slowly A filled sac or pouch that is usually abnormal see Fig. 6-4 . Used as a root meaning a normal bladder or sac, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder root cysi o, cysi i . A laboratory staining procedure that divides bacteria into two...

Clinical Aspects of the Male Reproductive System

Transurethral Incision The Prostate

Most infections of the male reproductive tract are sexually transmitted diseases STDs , listed in Display 14-1. The most common STD in the United States is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which, in males, mainly causes urethritis. This same organism also causes lymphogranuloma venereum, an STD associated with lymphadenopathy, which is rare in the United States. Both forms of these chlamydial infections respond to treatment with antibiotics. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria...

Ear Medical Terminology

Temporal Bone Fracture Ear

The ear has the receptors for both hearing and equilibrium. For study purposes, it may be divided into three parts the outer, middle, and inner ear Fig. 18-1 . The outer ear consists of the projecting pinna auricle and the external auditory canal meatus . This canal ends at the tympanic membrane or eardrum, which transmits sound waves to the middle ear. Glands in the external canal produce a waxy material, cerumen, which protects the ear and helps to prevent infection. Spanning the middle ear...

The Heart

Figure The Heart And Great Vessels

The heart is located between the lungs, with its point or apex directed toward the left Fig. 9-2 . The thick muscle layer of the heart wall is the myocardium. This is lined on the inside with a thin endocardium and is covered on the outside with a thin epicardium. The heart is contained within a fibrous sac, the pericardium. Each of the upper receiving chambers of the heart is an atrium plural, atria . Each of the lower pumping chambers is a ventricle plural, ventricles . The chambers of the...

Box 191 Names That Are Like Pictures

Some conditions are named by terms that are very descriptive. In orthopedics, several names for types of bursitis are based on the repetitive stress that leads to the irritation. For example, tailor's bottom involves the ischial sit bones of the pelvis, as might be irritated by sitting tailor-fashion to sew. Housemaid's knee comes from the days of scrubbing floors on hands and knees, and tennis elbow is named for the sport that is its most common cause. Student's elbow results from leaning to...

Naming of Muscles

Sole Foot Neuromuscular Junction

A muscle can be named by its location near a bone, for example , by the direction of its fibers, or by its size, its shape, or its number of attachment points heads , as indicated by the suffix -ceps. It may also be FIGURE 20-1. Neuromuscular junction. A The branched end of a motor neuron makes contact with the membrane of a muscle fiber cell . B Enlarged view. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott...

Anemia

Polycythemia And Anemia

Anemia is defined as a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Anemia may result from too few red blood cells, cells that are too small, or too little hemoglobin in the cells. Cells may be normal in size nor-mocytic or abnormal microcytic or macrocytic , and they may be normal in hemoglobin normochromic FIGURE 10-6. Hematocrit. The tube on the left shows a normal hematocrit. The middle tube shows that the percentage of red blood cells is low, indicating anemia. The tube on the right...

The Oviducts Uterus and Vagina

Sagittal Section

After ovulation, the ovum travels into an oviduct also called the uterine tube or fallopian tube , one of the two tubes attached to the upper lateral portions of the uterus see Fig. 15-1 . These tubes arch above the ovaries and have fingerlike projections fimbriae that sweep the released ovum into the oviduct. If fertilization occurs, it usually takes place in the oviduct. The uterus is the organ that nourishes the developing offspring. It is pear-shaped, with an upper rounded fundus, a...

The External Genital Organs

External Female Genitalia

All of the external female genital organs together are called the vulva Fig. 15-2 . This includes the large outer labia majora and small inner labia minora that enclose the openings of the vagina and the urethra. The clitoris, anterior to the urethral opening, is similar in origin to the penis and responds to sexual stimulation. In both male and female, the region between the thighs, from the external genital organs to the anus, is the perineum. During childbirth, an incision may be made...

Labeling Exercise 141

Human Anal Duct Gland Cysts

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Match the following terms and write the appropriate letter to the left of each number a. coiled tube on the surface of the testis c. gland located below the bladder in the male a. excision of the ductus deferens b. pituitary hormone active in reproduction a. narrowing of the foreskin opening b. inflammation of the glans penis e. accumulation of fluid in a saclike cavity b. introduction of semen into a woman's...

Parts Of A Syringe

Conjunctival Sac

Anaphylaxis An extreme allergic reaction that can lead to respiratory distress, circula- an-a fi-LAK-sis tory collapse, and death antagonist A substance that interferes with or opposes the action of a drug an-TAG-o-nist A factor that makes the use of a drug undesirable or dangerous The power to produce a specific result effectiveness The nonproprietary name of a drug, that is, a name that is not privately owned or trademarked usually a simplified version of the chemical name not capitalized...

Exercise 101

1. hyperalbuminemia hi-per-al-bu-mi-NE-me-a 2. hypoproteinemia hi -po-pro-fen-E-me-a _ 3. cytopenia si-to-PE-ne-a _ 4. thrombocytopenia fhrom-bo-si-to-PE-ne-a _ 5. erythropoiesis e-rifh-ro-poy-E-sis _ Word building. Use the suffix -emia to write a word for each of the following definitions 6. Presence of pus in the blood _ 7. Presence of viruses in the blood _ 8. Presence of toxins in the blood _ 9. Presence of excess white cells leuk o- in the blood _ Many of the words relating to blood cells...

Supplementary Terms The

Strabizmus Eye

The angle at either end of the slit between the eyelids A unit of measurement for the refractive power of a lens The normal condition of the eye in refraction, in which parallel light A bottom or base the region farthest from the opening of a structure. The fundus of the eye is the back portion of the inside of the eyeball The framework of dense connective tissue that gives shape to the eye- A system of fibers that holds the lens in place also called suspensory A condition that occurs when...

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. The incidence of this form of cancer has increased steadily over the past 50 years, especially in women. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in this as well as other forms of cancer. The most common form of lung cancer is squamous carcinoma, originating in the lining of the bronchi bronchogenic . Lung cancer usually cannot be detected early, and it metastasizes rapidly. The overall survival rate is low....

Skeletal System Crossword

Crossword Puzzle Skeletal System

8. pericardial per-i-KAR- de-al 9. ventricular ven- TRIK-u-lar 10. valvular VAL-vu-lar also valvar VAL-var 11. endocarditis en-do-kar-DI-tis 12. myocarditis mi-o-kar-D I-tis 13. pericarditis per-i -kar-D_I- tis 14. cardiology kar-de-OL-o-je 15. cardiomegaly kar-de-o-MEG-a-le 16. interventricular in-t ra_-ven-TRIK-u -lar 17. atrioventricular a-tre_-o-v en-TRIK-u-lar 18. valvotomy val-VOT-o-me also valvulotomy val-vu-LOT-o-me 7. inflammation of a vessel or vessels 8. pertaining to the heart and...

Divisions of the Skeleton

Medical Terms Skeleton

The skeleton forms the framework of the body, protects vital organs, and works with the muscular system to produce movement. The human adult skeleton is composed of 206 bones. It is divided for study into the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton Fig. 19-1 . The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the spinal column, the ribs, and the sternum. The skull consists of eight cranial bones and the 14 bones of the face Fig. 19-2 . Skull bones are joined by nonmoveable joints sutures , except...

Answer Section

Medical Terminology Puzzles With Answers

4. perirenal per-i-RE-nal circumrenal sir-kum-RE-nal 8. nephromalacia nef-ro-ma-LA-she-a 11. glomerulitis glo-mer-u-LI-tis 12. calicectomy kal-i-SEK-to-me 14. pyelectasis pi-e-LEK-ta-sis 15. glomerulosclerosis glo-mer-u-lo-skle-RO-sis 16. renography rr-NOG-ra-fe nephrography nef-ROG-ra-fe _ 17. pyelonephritis pi-e-lo-nef-RI-tis 5. proteinuria pr o-te-NU-re-a 15. natriuresis na-trr-u-RE-sis 16. kaliuresis ka-le-u-RE-sis 23. ureterolith u-RE-ter-o-lith 24. ureterostomy u-re-ter-OS-to-me 25....

Labeling Exercise 151

Female Cul Sac

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Anus Cervix Clitoris Cul-de-sac Labium majus Labium minus Ovary Oviduct Posterior fornix Rectum Urethra Female Reproductive System Showing Fertilization Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Body of uterus Cervical canal Cervix Fundus of uterus Greater vestibular Bartholin gland Implanted embryo Maturing follicle Ovarian follicle ruptured Oviduct fallopian tube Ovary...

Directional Terms

Frontal Coronal Plane

In describing the location or direction of a given point in the body, it is always assumed that the subject is in the anatomical position, that is, upright, with face front, arms at the sides with palms forward, and feet parallel, as shown in the small diagram in Figure 5-1. In this stance, the terms illustrated in Figure 5-1 and listed in Display 5-1 are used to designate relative position. Figure 5-2 illustrates planes of section, that is, direc- FIGURE 5-1. Directional terms. Reprinted with...

Positions

Anatomical Term For Buttock

In addition to the anatomical position, there are other standard positions in which the body is placed for examination or medical procedures. The most common of these are described in Display 5-2. FIGURE 5-5. Quadrants of the abdomen, showing the organs within each quadrant. Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The Human Body in Health and Disease. 9th Ed. Philadelphia Lippincott Williams amp Wilkins, 2000. FIGURE 5-5. Quadrants of the abdomen, showing the organs within...

Medical Term Urine In Cavity

Foley Catheter

A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into the dialysate. FIGURE 13-7. Peritoneal dialysis. A semipermeable membrane richly supplied with small blood vessels lines the peritoneal cavity. With dialysate dwelling in the peritoneal cavity, waste products diffuse from the network of blood vessels into...

Muscle Structure

Biceps Brachii Muscle Origin Diagram

Muscles are composed of individual cells, often referred to as fibers because they are so long and threadlike. These cells are held together in bundles by connective tissue Fig. 20-5 . Covering each muscle is a sheath of connective tissue or fascia. These supporting tissues merge to form the tendon that attaches the muscle to a bone. FIGURE 20-2. Diagram of a muscle showing three attachments to bones two origins and one insertion Reprinted with permission from Cohen BJ, Wood DL. Memmler's The...

Breast Cancer

Carcinoma of the breast is second only to lung cancer in causing cancer-related deaths among women in the United States. This cancer metastasizes readily through the lymph nodes and blood to other sites such as the lung, liver, bones, and ovaries. Treatment is usually some form of mastectomy removal of the breast . In a radical mastectomy, underlying muscle and axillary lymph nodes in the armpit also are removed in a modified radical mastectomy, the breast and lymph nodes are removed, but...

Disorders of the Retina

Medical Terminology Textbook 9th

Retinal detachment, separation of the retina from the underlying layer of the eye the choroid , may be caused by a tumor, hemorrhage, or injury to the eye Fig. 18-8 . This condition interferes with vision and is commonly repaired with laser surgery. Degeneration of the macula, the point of sharpest vision, is a common cause of visual problems in the elderly. When associated with aging, this deterioration is described as age-related macular degeneration AMD . Macular degeneration typically...

Case Studies

Case Study 15-1 Total Abdominal Hysterectomy With Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy M.T., a 60-year-old gravida 2, para 2, had spent 3 months under the care of her gynecologist for treatment of postmenopausal bleeding and cervical dysplasia. She had had several vaginal examinations with Pap smears, a uterine ultrasound, colposcopy with endocervical biopsies, and a D amp C with cone biopsy. She wanted to take hormone therapy, but her doctor thought she was at too much risk with the abnormal cells...

Gastrointestinal Tract Infection

Descending Colon Colostomies

A variety of organisms can infect the gastrointestinal tract, from viruses and bacteria to protozoa and worms. Some produce short-lived upsets with gastroenteritis, nausea, diarrhea, and emesis vomiting . Others, such as typhoid, cholera, and dysentery, are more serious, even fatal. An ulcer is a lesion of the skin or a mucous membrane marked by inflammation and tissue damage. Ulcers caused by the damaging action of gastric, or peptic, juices on the lining of the GI tract are termed peptic...

Animal Cell Parts

Animal Cell Medical Terminology

After study of this chapter you should be able to 1. Describe the main parts of a cell. 2. Label a diagram of a typical cell. 3. Name and give the functions of the four basic types of tissues in the body. 4. Define basic terms pertaining to the structure and function of body tissues. 5. Recognize and use roots and suffixes pertaining to cells, tissues, and organs. 6. Analyze two case studies pertaining to cells and tissues. The body can be studied from its simplest to its most complex level,...

Symptoms And Conditions

Progressive Systemic Sclerosis

An inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles usually associated with excess secretion of sebum acne vulgaris Pertaining to the effects of radiant energy, such as sunlight, ultra- A hereditary lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes White lines across the fingernails usually a sign of systemic disease Sweat that has a foul odor because of bacterial decomposition also A localized infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, usually caused by staphylococcus, and...

Medical Terminology Case Studies - Skin

Lymphotomes

Case Study 21-1 Basal Cell Carcinoma BSC K.B., a 32-year-old fitness instructor, had noticed a tiny hard lump at the base of her left nostril while cleansing her face. The lesion had been present for about 2 months when she consulted a dermatologist. She had recently moved north from Florida, where she had worked as a lifeguard. She thought the lump might have been triggered by the regular tanning salon sessions she had used to retain her tan because it did not resemble the acne pustules,...

Lower Respiratory Passageways and Lungs

Horizontal Cross Section The Lungs

The pharynx conducts air into the trachea, a tube reinforced with C-shaped rings of cartilage to prevent its collapse you can feel these rings if you press your fingers gently against the front of your throat . Cilia in the lining of the trachea move impurities up toward the throat, where they can be eliminated by swallowing or by expectoration. At the top of the trachea is the larynx Fig. 11-2 . The larynx is shaped by nine cartilages, the most prominent of which is the thyroid cartilage at...

Blowout Of A Dilated Segment Of The Main Artery

Ami Ekg Tracing

Case Study 9-1 PTCA and Echocardiogram A.L., a 68-year-old woman, was admitted to the CCU with chest pain, dyspnea, diaphoresis, syncope, and nausea. She had taken three sublingual doses of nitroglycerine tablets within a 10-minute time span without relief before dialing 911. A previous stress test and thallium uptake scan suggested cardiac disease. Her family history was significant for cardiovascular disease. Her father died at the age of 62 of an acute myocardial infarction. Her mother had...

Adjective Suffixes

The suffixes below are all adjective endings that mean pertaining to or resembling Table 2-3 . There are no rules for which ending to use for a given noun. Familiarity comes with practice. When necessary, tips on proper usage are given in the text. Pertaining to or Resembling pertaining to a meter unit of measurement Fig. 2-3 For words ending with the suffix -sis, the first s in the ending is changed to t before adding -ic to form the adjective, as in psychotic, pertaining to psychosis a mental...

The Victim S Injured Extremities Were Immobilized Before Transport. Immobilized Means

Cephalocaudal Assessment

During a triathlon, paramedics responded to a scene with multiple patients involved in a serious bicycle accident. B.R., a 20-year-old woman, lost control of her bike while descending a hill at approximately 40 mph. As she fell, two other cyclists collided with her, sending all three crashing to the ground. At the scene, B.R. complained of pain in her head, back, chest, and leg. She also had numbness and tingling in her legs and feet. Other injuries included a cut on her face and on her right...

Hall Drill And Saline Coolant

Skeleton Crossword

Case Study 19-1 Arthroplasty of the Right TMJ S.A., a 38-year-old teacher, was admitted for surgery for degenerative joint disease DJD of her right temporomandibular joint TMJ . She has experienced chronic pain in her right jaw, neck, and ear since her automobile accident the previous year. S.A.'s diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan and was followed up with conservative therapy, which included a bite plate, NSAIDs, and steroid injections. She had also tried hypnosis in an attempt to manage her...

Crossword Endocrine System

Pituitary hormone that controls water loss Measurement used to diagnose diabetes Disorder caused by excess growth hormone in Sudden degeneration of the pituitary is pituitary A form of thyroid hormones in the blood Diabetes affects the metabolism of . A form of hyperthyroidism is named for him. The cells or tissues a hormone acts on Pituitary hormone that acts on the thyroid Test for measuring hormones in the blood 1. study of the endocrine glands or system 2. surgical removal of the pituitary...

Crossword Male Reproductive System

Reproductive System Crossword

Abnormal, painful, difficult prefix 6. Pertaining to condition of urine suffix 9. A reproductive organ 10. Stone or calculus root 13. Male gamete or sex cell 16. Main male sex hormone 18. Protein associated with prostate cancer abbreviation 1. Self-examination of the testis abbreviation 8. Gland that contributes to semen 11. High blood pressure abbreviation 12. Type of cell division that forms the gametes 14. Hernia or localized dilation suffix 15. Male reproductive gland root 17. Condition...

Crossword Female Reproductive System Pregnancy and Birth

External Reproductive System

Fallopian tube 8. Vagina root 13. Tube between the uterus and the external genitalia 15. Developing infant in the uterus from the third month of gestation combining form 16. Premature separation of the placenta _ 20. The outermost layer of the embryo forms the inner portion of the placenta 4. Removal of tissue for laboratory study 5. The reproductive and urinary systems together abbreviation 7. Substance or agent that causes birth abnormalities 9. The region...

Treatment

Lippincott Radiology 101

If diagnosis so indicates, treatment, also termed therapy, is begun. This may consist of counseling, drugs, surgery, radiation, physical therapy, occupational therapy, psychiatric treatment, or a combination of these. See Chapter 8 for a discussion of drugs and their actions. During diagnosis and throughout the course of treatment, a patient is evaluated to establish a prognosis, that is, a prediction of the outcome of the disease. Box 7-1 Terminology Evolves With Medical Science The science of...

Labeling Exercise 174

Spinal Cord Labeling Exercises

Spinal Cord and Divisions of the Spinal Nerves Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Brain Brainstem Cervical nerves Coccygeal nerve Lumbar nerves Sacral nerves Spinal cord Thoracic nerves Cross-Section of Spinal Cord and Reflex Arc Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Cell body Central canal Dorsal horn Dorsal root Dorsal root ganglion Effector Gray matter Interneuron Motor neuron Receptor Sensory...

Case Study

Case Study 1-1 Multiple Health Problems Secondary to Injury D.S., a 28-year-old woman, was treated for injuries sustained in a train derailment accident. During the course of her treatment, she was seen by several specialists. For pain in her knee and hip joints, she was referred to an orthopedist. For migraine headaches and blurry vision, she consulted a neurologist. For pain on urination and occasional bloody urine, she saw a urologist. Later, for a persistent dry cough and problems resulting...

Labeling Exercise

Major Body Cavities Labeling Exercises

Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Abdominal cavity Abdominal pelvic cavity Cranial cavity Dorsal cavity Diaphragm Pelvic cavity Spinal cavity canal Thoracic cavity Ventral cavity Write the name of each numbered part on the corresponding line of the answer sheet. Epigastric region Hypogastric region Left hypochondriac region Left iliac region Left lumbar region Right hypochondriac region Right iliac region Right lumbar region Umbilical region

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is an abnormal increase in pressure within the eyeball. It occurs when more aqueous humor is produced than can be drained away from the eye. There is pressure on blood vessels in the eye and on the optic nerve, leading to blindness. There are many causes of glaucoma, and screening for glaucoma should be a part of every routine eye examination. Fetal infection with German measles rubella early in pregnancy can cause glaucoma, as well as cataracts and hearing impairment. Glaucoma is...

The Urinary System

The Human Body Health And Disease

The Kidneys The Nephrons Blood Supply to the Kidney Urine Formation Removal of Urine Roots Pertaining to the Urinary System Clinical Aspects of the Urinary System After study of this chapter you should be able to 1. Label a diagram of the urinary tract and follow the flow of urine through the body. 2. Label a diagram of the kidney. 3. Identify the portions of the nephron and explain how each functions in urine formation. 4. Explain the relationship between the kidney and the blood circulation....