References

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The Anatomy And Pathophysiology Of Alzheimers Disease

Prospective neuropsychological studies have made the fundamental observation that AD begins in the hippocampal formation 1,2 . The hippocampus itself is made up of anatomically distinct subregions (Figure 7.1) and recent microarray studies have shown that each hippocampal subregion expresses a unique molecular profile 3 . Although over time most subregions manifest AD pathology, these molecular observations underlie the assumption that early on AD targets the hippocampus with regional...

Rat and Monkey Models of Parkinsons Disease

We have extensively studied the 6-OHDA rat PD model using phMRI 5,8,12 . A schematic of such a model was shown in Figure 10.11. Our studies have been geared towards multiple objectives. First, we wished to show that the hemodynamic effects of amphetamine or p> -CFT (a selective dopamine transporter blocker similar to cocaine or methylphenidate) were due to dopamine release itself, and not some other neurotransmitter. This aspect of the experiment was discussed above in the beginning of...

Alzheimers Disease Imaging A Multimodality Challenge

In Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug target identification of the y and p> -secretases to prevent production of p> -amyloid has come from an understanding of disease mechanisms 46-48 . Given FIGURE 3.2 (See color insert for (b) following page 328.) (a) Survival plot showing the percent of patients given cisplatin who had a complete response (no vomiting, no rescue) after administering Aprepitant at different dose levels (figures in mg dose day 1 and days 2 to 5) in combination with standard...

Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Stroke and Underlying Etiology Based on MRI

A stroke-MRI protocol consists at least of standard MR sequences such as T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI), FLAIR, and MR Angiography (MRA). On T2-WI, ischemic infarction appears as a hyperintense lesion. Definite signal changes, however, are at the earliest seen 2 h after stroke onset in animal experiments and 6 to 8 h after stroke onset in human stroke 9 . Neither a diagnosis of parenchymal ischemia nor the differentiation of ischemic core from penumbral tissue is possible with T2-WI. On the other...

Neurovascular Coupling Many Neurotransmitters Are Vasoactive

Changes in neuronal activity have long been known to lead to changes in metabolic activity. Both the mechanisms of the coupling between the metabolic and hemodynamic changes as well as the location of where these changes occur is still a subject of intense research activity. Most of the data and models that exist have been developed to describe changes that take place for cortical glutamatergic neuronal systems. As such, we will review these, however, we believe that many of the unifying...

Application of the above Criteria to Study the Dopamine System

We investigated the application of the above criteria to the dopaminergic system in rats and to a less thorough degree in monkeys. We first chose to examine amphetamine, a drug that causes reverse transport of dopamine through the dopamine transporter as well as an increase of dopamine release from presynaptic vesicles 54 . The second drug we used was p gt -CFT 2p gt -carbomethoxy-3 P- 4-fluorophenyl tropane , which is a selective blocker of the dopamine transporter decreasing reuptake of...

Imaging The Histologic Stage Of Alzheimers Disease With Structural And Contrastenhanced

Almost a century after Alzheimer himself visualized amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in dead brains, imaging techniques are being perfected allowing us to visualize this histological stage of AD in living brains. As mentioned earlier, the true pattern of histological progression both spatially and temporally is still a matter of debate for the very reason that, until recently, we did not have the opportunity to follow these histological changes in living subjects over time. For...

PhMRI Studies of Drug Abuse

Drugs of abuse such as nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are major problems plaguing the industrialized world. While each of the aforementioned drugs targets a different neurotransmitter system cholinergic, dopaminergic, and opioid, respectively , there is a general consensus that much of the rewarding effects of the drugs act through the mesocortical limbic dopaminergic system including the sublenticular extended amygdala, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, striatum, and frontal cortex. This reward...