Role of CGRP in LNAMEInduced Hypertension During Pregnancy

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

The purpose of this series of experiments was to determine the involvement of CGRP in the vascular adaptations that occur in normal pregnancy and its role in hypertensive L-NAME-treated female rats. Yallampalli et al. (27) has demonstrated that the inhibition of NO synthesis with L-NAME in pregnant rats causes hypertension, proteinuria, fetal growth retardation, and increased fetal mortality. The co-administration of CGRP with the L-NAME prevented the gestational, but not the postpartum...

Role of CGRP in Chronic Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension

As described previously, CGRP participates in the regulation of regional organ blood flows both under normal physiological conditions and in the pathophysiology of various disease states. For example, in the lung, CGRP plays a critical role in modulating local pulmonary vascular tone. An excellent review describing the role of CGRP and other endogenous lung neuropeptides in the regulation of the pulmonary circulation has been published 28 . Indeed, to the best of our knowledge, the first report...

Intrarenal Levels Of Angiotensin Ii

Angiotensin Hypertension

Interstitial and Tubular Angiotensin II Intrarenal Ang II is not distributed in a homogenous fashion but is compartmentalized in both regional and segmental manners 121 . Earlier studies indicated that medullary Ang II-levels are higher than the cortical levels in normal rats and increase further in Ang II infused hypertensive rats 81 . The combination of high Ang II levels in the medulla coupled with the high density of Ang II receptors suggest that Ang II exerts a major role in...

Severe paroxysmal hypertension

There are some patients with severe paroxysymal hypertension in whom the baroreflex failure, pheochromocytoma, and medullary vascular compression all appear to be absent. Sometimes paroxysmal hypertension is seen in patients with renal artery stenosis, but this can usually be ruled out with standard diagnostic techniques. In other patients, the etiology is less clear, but certainly it is observed in rare conditions such as tumors in the fourth ventricle or in the ancillary structures 26 ,...

Human Breast Cancer Cell Line Mda-ms231

I., O'Shaughnessy, I. M., Stepniakowski, K. T., Kissebah, A. H., and Goodfriend, T. L. 1996 Obesity hypertension is more closely related to impairment of insulin's fatty acid than glucose lowering action. Hypertension 27 2 , 723-728. 2. Jensen, M. D., Haymond, M. W., Rizza, R. A., Cryer, P. E., and Miles, J. M. 1989 Influence of body fat distribution on free fatty acid metabolism in obesity. J. Clin. Investig. 83, 1168-1173. 3. Franks, P. W., Wong, M.-Y., Luan, J.,...

Role in pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders

In response to an increase in atrial distension, ANP is released into the circulation and mediates natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant effects. High levels of endogenous ANP are thought to compensate the condition of patients with heart failure by reducing preload and afterload. Evidence suggests that a high plasma ANP-BNP level is a prognostic predictor in humans with heart failure 257-259 . Studies with ANP-deficient genetic strains of mice demonstrated that a defect in the ANP synthesis...

ET Antagonists in Essential Hypertension

Because ETB receptors are both vasoconstrictor and vasodilator, and additionally at least in the mouse have a natriuretic effect, there has been ongoing controversy on whether selective ETA or combined ETA ETB receptor blockers would be more efficacious therapeutically in cardiovascular diseases including hypertension. However, there are no clinical trials available comparing an ETA antagonist to a combined ETA ETB blocker. The combined ETa ETb antagonist bosentan 500 mg to 2000 mg d for 4 wk...

ET Antagonists in Heart Failure Renal Failure and Diabetes Mellitus

Although initial studies of heart failure demonstrated beneficial effects of ET blockade both acutely 78 and with bosentan over 14 d with improved systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics 79 , recent studies such as ENABLE demonstrated increased risk of worsening heart failure in patients treated with bosentan 80 . On the other hand, ETa selective antagonists darusentan increased cardiac index after 3 wk of treatment in the HEAT study, although pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary arterial...

Baroreflex failure

Perhaps the most dramatic form of neurogenic hypertension is baroreflex failure 6,7 . Baroreflex failure occurs when afferent IX and X cranial nerves are lost 8 . Although unilateral loss occasionally causes altered heart rate regulation 9,10 , it is more typically tolerated from a cardiovascular standpoint. On the other hand, bilateral loss results acutely in an important syndrome of accelerated hypertension 11 and even encephalopathy 12 . Baroreflex failure should be diagnosed when a patient...

Alcohol withdrawal

One of the most dramatic causes of acute and transient sympathetic activation in hypertension seen in ordinary clinical practice is severe alcohol withdrawal. In the most severely affected patients, fivefold elevations of plasma norepinephrine are by no means rare. Such patients typically have tachycardia and sometimes arrhythmias in association with these dramatic blood pressure elevations. In some cases, sympathetic excitation is a first stage in what later becomes delirium tremens. When...

Ang Iimediated Signaling Pathways

Ip3 And Dag Pathway

The multiple actions of Ang II are mediated via specific, highly complex intracellular signaling pathways, which are stimulated following initial binding of the peptide to its specific receptors. In mammalian cells, Ang II mediates effects via at least two high-affinity plasma membrane receptors, ATi and AT2. Both receptor subtypes have been cloned and pharmacologically characterized 37,38 . Two other Ang II receptors have been described, namely AT3 and AT4. The AT3 receptor is...

Ang ii effects on leukocytes cell adhesion and chemotaxis in the vasculature

Weibel Palade Bodies Lymphatic

A fundamental process in inflammation is extravasation or recruitment of leukocytes from the vascular lumen to the interstitial tissue 9 . This phenomenon involves three basic steps 1 cell rolling, 2 cell adhesion, and 3 transendothelial migration and chemotaxis movement toward chemotactic stimuli Fig. 2 . Adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes into the vessel wall involve sequential interaction of distinct receptors on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells. Cellular...