Progenitor B Cells Proliferate in Bone Marrow

B-cell development begins as lymphoid stem cells differentiate into the earliest distinctive B-lineage cell—the progenitor B cell (pro-B cell)—which expresses a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase called CD45R (sometimes called B220 in mice). Pro-B cells proliferate within the bone marrow, filling the extravascular spaces between large sinusoids in the shaft of a bone. Proliferation and differentiation of pro-B cells into precursor B cells (pre-B cells) requires the microenvironment provided by the bone-marrow stromal cells. If pro-B cells are removed from the bone marrow and cultured in vitro, they will not progress to more mature B-cell stages unless stromal cells are present. The stromal cells play two important roles: they interact directly with pro-B and pre-B cells, and they secrete various cytokines, notably IL-7, that support the developmental process.

Immature B cells

Immature B cells

VLA-4 VCAM-1

Cell Maturation Stromal Cell

stromal cell, which triggers a signal, mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit, that stimulates the pro-B cell to express receptors for IL-7. IL-7 released from the stromal cell then binds to the IL-7 receptors, inducing the pro-B cell to mature into a pre-B cell. Proliferation and differentiation evenutally produces immature B cells.

VLA-4 VCAM-1

FIGURE 11-2

Bone-marrow stromal cells are required for maturation of progenitor B cells into precursor B cells. Pro-B cells bind to stromal cells by means of an interaction between VCAM-1 on the stromal cell and VLA-4 on the pro-B cell. This interaction promotes the binding of c-Kit on the pro-B cell to stem cell factor (SCF) on the stromal cell, which triggers a signal, mediated by the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Kit, that stimulates the pro-B cell to express receptors for IL-7. IL-7 released from the stromal cell then binds to the IL-7 receptors, inducing the pro-B cell to mature into a pre-B cell. Proliferation and differentiation evenutally produces immature B cells.

At the earliest developmental stage, pro-B cells require direct contact with stromal cells in the bone marrow. This interaction is mediated by several cell-adhesion molecules, including VLA-4 on the pro-B cell and its ligand, VCAM-1, on the stromal cell (Figure 11-2). After initial contact is made, a receptor on the pro-B cell called c-Kit interacts with a stromal-cell surface molecule known as stem-cell factor (SCF). This interaction activates c-Kit, which is a tyrosine kinase, and the pro-B cell begins to divide and differentiate into a pre-B cell and begins expressing a receptor for IL-7. The IL-7 secreted by the stromal cells drives the maturation process, eventually inducing down-regulation of the adhesion molecules on the pre-B cells, so that the proliferating cells can detach from the stromal cells. At this stage, pre-B cells no longer require direct contact with stromal cells but continue to require IL-7 for growth and maturation.

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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Responses

  • Antonino
    What is cell prolifiration of bone marroe?
    5 years ago

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