Mechanisms of the Effects of Fermentable Fibers on immune Functions

Even though the mechanism for the effect of fermentable dietary fibers on immune function in the intestine has not been fully established, interesting hypotheses have been proposed that include Production of SCFAs from fiber fermentation. A number of studies support the direct or indirect immunomodulatory properties of SCFAs.79,80 Indeed, supplementing total parenteral nutrition with SCFAs results in increased natural killer cell activity.79 Moreover, other studies have demonstrated...

In Vivo Models to Study the Fermentation of Carbohydrates by the Colonic Microflora

In vivo fermentation of nondigestible carbohydrates can be studied both in experimental and domestic animals as well as in pets or in human volunteers. In experimental animals, especially rats, the carbohydrate under investigation is added to food (5, 10, or even 15 w w) or drinking water (5 to 10 w v, depending on water solubility), but it can also be administered by gastric intubation. Animals are then anaesthetized and sacrificed at predetermined time intervals. Fecal samples and the content...

Dietary Fiber A Concept In Human Nutrition

The health benefits of fiber-rich food have been recognized for at least 2500 years. Indeed, already in 430 B.C., Hippocrates described the laxative effect of coarse wheat in comparison to refined wheat.1 In the 19th century, a recommendation was already made to increase the fiber content in diet, and in 1920, publications by J. H. Kellogg claimed that foods rich in bran increase stool weight, promote laxation, and prevent diseases.2 Hispley was the first to use the expression dietary fiber...

Toxic Chemicals Carcinogen

FIGURE 12.1 Schematic representation of the body's defense with special emphasis on the intestinal processes TLRs Toll-like receptors XME xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes . FIGURE 12.1 Schematic representation of the body's defense with special emphasis on the intestinal processes TLRs Toll-like receptors XME xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes . chemical, biological, and microbiological status of the luminal content. Inflammation is one of the cell-mediated barrier processes that contribute to...

The Anaerobic Fermentation Of Proteins

Protein Fermentation End Product

Nitrogen in the chyme that reaches the large bowel is almost exclusively in the form of proteins and peptides, both form exogenous dietary and endogenous pancreatic enzymes, mucins, etc. origin. Daily, in an average European-type diet, a total amount of 7-15 g of proteins reach the colon and are likely to be fermented, these include 3-9 g of dietary and 4-6 g of endogenous mainly pancreatic enzymes peptides and proteins.15 For the carbon, nitrogen, and energy of these compounds to benefit the...

Gastrointesttinal Tract

Kudoh, K., Shimizu, J., Ishiyama, A., Wada, M., Takita, T., Kanke Y., Innami, S., Secretion and excretion of immunoglobulin A to cecum and feces differ with type of indigestible saccharides, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 45, 173-181, 1999. 78. Kudoh, K., Shimizu, J., Ishiyama, A., Wada, M., Takita, T., Kanke Y., Innami, S., Effect of indigestible saccharides on B lymphocyte response of intestinal mucosa and cecal fermentation in rats, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 44, 103-112, 1998. 79. Pratt, V....

Typical Examples of Food Technology Applications of Chicory Inulin Oligofructose and Their Derivatives

Breakfast cereals Fruit preparations Body and mouth feel Foam stability Sugar and fat replacement Synergy with sweeteners Sugar and fat replacement Synergy with sweeteners Texture and melting Fat replacement Texture and spreadability Emulsion stability Sugar replacement Moisture retention Crispness and expansion Sugar replacement Synergy with sweeteners Body and mouth feel Fat replacement Texture and stability Sugar replacement Heat resistance Source Adapted from Franck, A., Coussement, P.,...

Digestion Of Carbohydrates In The Gastrointestinal Tract

Digestion Carbohydrates

In the human diet, the most common carbohydrates are starch, sucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose, and dietary fibers. Most 50-60 of daily intake carbohydrates are starch, which is a mixture of linear amylose and branched amylopectin polymers of glucose with D-1, 4 and D-1, 4 D-1, 6 linkages, respectively. Starch, as well as the disaccharides lactose and sucrose, is hydrolyzed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal system Figure 4.1 , essentially the oral cavity and the small intestine,...

Table

Major Physiological Properties of Dietary Fibers Summary of their Effects on Gastrointestinal Functions Effects of Dietary Fibers on Gastrointestinal Functions Effects on Upper Gastrointestinal System Resistance to digestion Retarded gastric emptying Increased oro-cecal transit time Reduced glucose absorption and low glycemic index Hyperplasia of the small intestinal epithelium Stimulation of secretion of intestinal hormonal peptides Effects on Lower Gastrointestinal System Acting as food for...

References

H., The Large Intestine in Nutrition and Disease, Danone Chair Monograph, Institut Danone, Brussels, Belgium, 1997. 2. Gibson, G. R., Roberfroid, M. B., Dietary modulation of the human colonic micro-biota introducing the concept of prebiotics, J. Nutr., 125, 1401-1412, 1995. 3. Rowland, I. R., Interactions of the gut microflora and the host in toxicology, Toxicol. Pathol., 16, 147-153, 1988. 4. Cummings, J. H., Macfarlane, G. T., Colonic microflora nutrition and health,...

Roberfroid M 1983 A Review Comparing

M., Old thought and new work on breads white and brown, Lancet, 2, 205-210, 1955. 2. Slavin, J., Dietary fibre and non-digestible oligosaccharides, in Colonic Microbiota, Nutrition, and Health, Gibson, G. R., Roberfroid, M. B., Eds., Kluwer Acadamic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 125-147, 1999. 3. Hispley, E. H., Dietary fibre and pregnancy toxaemia, Br. Med. J., 2, 420-422, 1953. 4. Burkitt, D. P., Walker, A. R. P., Painter, N. S., Effect of dietary fibre on...

Effects of Inulin Type Fructans on Risk of Colon Cancer

Cancer is a generic term for malignant neoplasia, a large group of diseases arising in practically all tissues composed of potentially dividing cells. Initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis are the key steps in cancer development and they are multifactorial. Especially, several factors of environmental and genetic origin have been identified that affect cancer incidence. The most important environmental contributors are believed to be the diet that may contribute to some 35 of all...

Inulin Origin Chemistry Biochemistry and Technological Properties

3.1.2 Chemistry of Linear, Branched, and Cyclic Fructans 3.1.3 Biochemistry The Biosynthetic Pathways of Fructans 3.1.4 Natural Occurrence of Fructans 3.1.4.1 Occurrence of Fructans in Plants 3.1.4.2 Occurrence of Fructans in Fungi 3.1.4.3 Occurrence of Fructans in Bacteria 3.2.2 Chemistry and Biochemistry of Inulin 3.2.3 Distribution of Inulin in Plants 3.2.4 Biological Functions of Inulin in Plants 3.3.1 Description of Chicory Inulin 3.3.3 Industrial Production of Inulin and Oligofructose and...

Inulin And Oligofructose As Dietary Fiber

6.2.1 Inulin and Oligofructose, and the Concept of Dietary Fiber As discussed above, the five basic attributes of a dietary fiber are It is a component of an edible plant cell. It is a carbohydrate both oligosaccharides and polysaccharides . It resists hydrolysis by human mammal alimentary enzymes. It is resistant to absorption in the small intestine. It undergoes hydrolysis and fermentation partial or total by the bacteria in the large bowel. The question now is Do inulin and oligofructose...

Main Substrates of Bacterial Fermentation in the Large Bowel

Nonstarch polysaccharides NSPs Nondigestible oligosaccharides NDOs Sugars e.g., lactose, raffinose, stachyose, etc., Polyols Nondigestible dietary proteins and peptides Endogens compounds Proteins and peptides e.g., pancreatic enzymes Mucins many different substrates as well as intermediate or even end metabolic products, and they interact with each other to form trophic chains.14

Info

G., de Wit, D., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., The interaction of inulin oligosaccharides with Ba2 studied by 1H NMR Spectroscopy, J. Carbohydr. Chem, 2, 213-230, 1997. Delzenne, N., Roberfroid, M. B., Physiological effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides, Lebensmitt. Wissensch. Technol., 27, 1-6, 1994. Roberfroid, M. B., Slavin, J., Nondigestible oligosaccharides, Critic. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 40, 461-480, 2000. Franck, A., Technological functionality of inulin and...