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980 Chapter 25 DNA Metabolism

980 Chapter 25 DNA Metabolism

The Catabolism Process Amino Acids

FIGURE 25-30 Crossing over. (a) Crossing over often produces an exchange of genetic material. (b) The homologous chromosomes of a grasshopper are shown during prophase I of meiosis. Many points of joining (chiasmata) are evident between the two homologous pairs of chromatids. These chiasmata are the physical manifestation of prior homologous recombination (crossing over) events.

FIGURE 25-30 Crossing over. (a) Crossing over often produces an exchange of genetic material. (b) The homologous chromosomes of a grasshopper are shown during prophase I of meiosis. Many points of joining (chiasmata) are evident between the two homologous pairs of chromatids. These chiasmata are the physical manifestation of prior homologous recombination (crossing over) events.

Crossing over effectively links together all four homologous chromatids, a linkage that is essential to the proper segregation of chromosomes in the subsequent meiotic cell divisions. Crossing over is not an entirely random process, and "hot spots" have been identified on many eukaryotic chromosomes. However, the assumption that crossing over can occur with equal probability at almost any point along the length of two homologous chromosomes remains a reasonable approximation in many cases, and it is this assumption that permits the genetic mapping of genes. The frequency of homologous recombination in any region separating two points on a chromosome is roughly proportional to the distance between the points, and this allows determination of the relative positions of and distances between different genes.

Homologous recombination thus serves at least three identifiable functions: (1) it contributes to the repair of several types of DNA damage; (2) it provides, in eukaryotic cells, a transient physical link between chro-matids that promotes the orderly segregation of chromosomes at the first meiotic cell division; and (3) it enhances genetic diversity in a population.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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